top Barnabas
English translation by J. B. Lightfoot (modified).

Chapter 1

Greetings and Thanks

1 Χαίρετε, υἱοὶ καὶ θυγατέρες, ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντος ἡμᾶς, ἐν εἰρήνῃ. Rejoice, sons and daughters, in the name of the Lord who loved us, in peace.
2 Μεγάλων μὲν ὄντων καὶ πλουσίων τῶν τοῦ θεοῦ δικαιωμάτων εἰς ὑμᾶς, ὑπέρ τι καὶ καθ᾿ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπερευφραίνομαι ἐπὶ τοῖς μακαρίοις καὶ ἐνδόξοις ὑμῶν πνεύμασιν· οὕτως ἔμφυτον τῆς δωρεᾶς πνευματικῆς χάριν εἰλήφατε. Seeing that the ordinances of God are great and rich unto you, I rejoice with an exceeding great and overflowing joy at your blessed and glorious spirits; so innate is the grace of the spiritual gift that you have received.
3 διὸ καὶ μᾶλλον συγχαίρω ἐμαυτῷ ἐλπίζων σωθῆναι, ὅτι ἀληθῶς βλέπω ἐν ὑμῖν ἐκκεχυμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ πλουσίου τῆς πηγῆς κυρίου πνεῦμα ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς. οὕτω με ἐξέπληξεν ἐπὶ ὑμῶν ἐμοὶ ἐπιποθήτη ὄψις ὑμῶν. Why also I the more congratulate myself hoping to be saved, for that I truly see the Spirit poured out among you from the riches of the fount of the Lord. So greatly did the much-desired sight of you astonish me respecting you.
4 πεπεισμένος οὖν τοῦτο καὶ συνειδὼς ἐμαυτῷ, ὅτι ἐν ὑμῖν λαλήσας πολλὰ ἐπίσταμαι, ὅτι ἐμοὶ συνώδευσεν ἐν ὁδῷ δικαιοσύνης κύριος, καὶ πάντως ἀναγκάζομαι κἀγὼ εἰς τοῦτο, ἀγαπᾶν ὑμᾶς ὑπὲρ τὴν ψυχήν μου, ὅτι μεγάλη πίστις καὶ ἀγάπη ἐγκατοικεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν ἐπ᾿ ἐλπίδι ζωῆς αὐτοῦ. Being therefore persuaded of this, and being conscious with myself that having said much among you I know that the Lord journeyed with me on the way of righteousness, and am wholly constrained also myself to this, to love you more than my own soul (for great faith and love dwells in you through the hope of the life which is His)–considering this therefore, that,
5 λογισάμενος οὖν τοῦτο, ὅτι ἐὰν μελήσῃ μοι περὶ ὑμῶν τοῦ μέρος τι μεταδοῦναι ἀφ᾿ οὗ ἔλαβον, ὅτι ἔσται μοι τοιούτοις πνεύμασιν ὑπηρετήσαντι εἰς μισθόν, ἐσπούδασα κατὰ μικρὸν ὑμῖν πέμπειν, ἵνα μετὰ τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν τελείαν ἔχητε τὴν γνῶσιν. if it shall be my care to communicate to you some portion of that which I received, it shall turn to my reward for having ministered to such spirits, I was eager to send you a trifle, that along with your faith you might have your knowledge also perfect.

Three basic doctrines

6 Τρία οὖν δόγματά ἐστιν κυρίου· ζωῆς ἐλπίς, ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος πίστεως ἡμῶν· καὶ δικαιοσύνη, κρίσεως, ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος· ἀγάπη εὐφροσύνης καὶ ἀγαλλιάσεως ἔργων δικαιοσύνης μαρτυρία. Well then, there are three ordinances of the Lord; the hope of life, which is the beginning and end of our faith; and righteousness, which is the beginning and end of judgment; love shown in gladness and exultation, the testimony of works of righteousness.
7 ἐγνώρισεν γὰρ ἡμῖν δεσπότης διὰ τῶν προφητῶν τὰ παρεληλυθότα καὶ τὰ ἐνεστῶτα, καὶ τῶν μελλόντων δοὺς ἀπαρχὰς ἡμῖν γεύσεως, ὧν τὰ καθ᾿ ἕκαστα βλέποντες ἐνεργούμενα, καθὼς ἐλάλησεν, ὀφείλομεν πλουσιώτερον καὶ ὑψηλότερον προσάγειν τῷ φόβῳ αὐτοῦ. For the Lord made known to us by His prophets things past and present, giving us likewise the firstfruits of the taste of things future. And seeing each of these things severally coming to pass, according as He spoke, we ought to offer a richer and higher offering to the fear of Him.
8 ἐγὼ δὲ οὐχ ὡς διδάσκαλος, ἀλλ᾿ ὡς εἷς ἐξ ὑμῶν ὑποδείξω ὀλίγα, δι᾿ ὧν ἐν τοῖς παροῦσιν εὐφρανθήσεσθε. But I, not as though I were a teacher, but as one of yourselves, will show forth a few things, whereby you shall be gladdened in the present circumstances.

Chapter 2

1 Ἡμερῶν οὖν οὐσῶν πονηρῶν καὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἐνεργοῦντος ἔχοντος τὴν ἐξουσίαν, ὀφείλομεν ἑαυτοῖς προσέχοντες ἐκζητεῖν τὰ δικαιώματα κυρίου. Seeing then that the days are evil, and that the Active One himself has the authority, we ought to give heed to ourselves and to seek out the ordinances of the Lord.
2 τῆς οὖν πίστεως ἡμῶν εἰσιν βοηθοὶ φόβος καὶ ὑπομονή, τὰ δὲ συμμαχοῦντα ἡμῖν μακροθυμία καὶ ἐγκράτεια· The aids of our faith then are fear and patience, and our allies are long-suffering and self-restraint.
3 τούτων οὖν μενόντων τὰ πρὸς κύριον ἁγνῶς, συνευφραίνονται αὐτοῖς σοφία, σύνεσις, ἐπιστήμη, γνῶσις. While these abide in a pure spirit in matters relating to the Lord, wisdom, understanding, science, knowledge rejoice with them.

Sacrifices that please God

4 Πεφανέρωκεν γὰρ ἡμῖν διὰ πάντων τῶν προφητῶν, ὅτι οὔτε θυσιῶν οὔτε ὁλοκαυτωμάτων οὔτε προσφορῶν χρῄζει, λέγων ὅτε μέν· For He has made manifest to us by all the prophets that He wants neither sacrifices nor whole burnt offerings nor oblations, saying at one time;
5 Τί μοι πλῆθος τῶν θυσιῶν ὑμῶν; λέγει κύριος. πλήρης εἰμὶ ὁλοκαυτωμάτων, καὶ στέαρ ἀρνῶν καὶ αἷμα ταύρων καὶ τράγων οὐ βούλομαι, οὐδ᾿ ἄν ἔρχησθε ὀφθῆναί μοι. τίς γὰρ ἐξεζήτησεν ταῦτα ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν ὑμῶν; πατεῖν μου τὴν αὐλὴν οὐ προσθήσεσθε. ἐὰν φέρητε σεμίδαλιν, μάταιον· θυμίαμα βδέλυγμά μοί ἐστιν· τὰς νεομηνίας ὑμῶν καὶ τὰ σάββατα οὐκ ἀνέχομαι. What to Me is the multitude of your sacrifices, says the Lord I am full of whole burnt-offerings, and the fat of lambs and the blood of bulls and of goats desire not, not though you should come to be seen of Me. or who required these things at your hands? You shall continue no more to tread My court. If you bring fine flour, it is in vain; incense is an abomination to Me; your new moons and your Sabbaths I cannot away with.
6 ταῦτα οὖν κατήργησεν, ἵνα καινὸς νόμος τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἄνευ ζυγοῦ ἀνάγκης, ὤν, μὴ ἀνθρωποποίητον ἔχῃ τὴν προσφοράν. These things therefore He annulled, that the new law of our Lord Jesus Christ, being free from the yoke of constraint, might have its oblation not made by human hands.
7 λέγει δὲ πάλιν πρὸς αὐτούς· Μὴ ἐγὼ ἐνετειλάμην τοῖς πατράσιν ὑμῶν ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, προσενέγκαι μοι ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ θυσίας; And He says again unto them; Did I command your fathers when they went forth from the land of Egypt to bring Me whole burnt offerings and sacrifices?
8 ἀλλ᾿ τοῦτο ἐνετειλάμην αὐτοῖς· ἕκαστος ὑμῶν κατὰ τοῦ πλησίον ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ ἑαυτοῦ κακίαν μὴ μνησικακείτω, καὶ ὅρκον ψευδῆ μὴ ἀγαπᾶτε. No, this was My command unto them, Let none of you bear a grudge of evil against his neighbor in his heart, and love you not a false oath.
9 αἰσθάνεσθαι οὖν ὀφείλομεν, μὴ ὄντες ἀσύνετοι, τὴν γνώμην τῆς ἀγαθωσύνης τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν, ὅτι ἡμῖν λέγει, θέλων ἡμᾶς μὴ ὁμοίως πλανωμένους ἐκείνοις ζητεῖν, πῶς προσάγωμεν αὐτῷ. So we ought to perceive, unless we are without understanding, the mind of the goodness of our Father; for He speaks to us, desiring us not to go astray like them but to seek how we may approach Him.
10 ἡμῖν οὖν οὕτως λέγει· Θυσία τῷ κυρίῳ[1] καρδία συντετριμμένη, ὀσμὴ εὐωδίας τῷ κυρίῳ καρδία δοξάζουσα τὸν πεπλακότα αὐτήν. ἀκριβεύεσθαι οὖν ὀφείλομεν, ἀδελφοί, περὶ τῆς σωτηρίας ἡμῶν, ἵνα μὴ πονηρὸς παρείσδυσιν πλάνης ποιήσας ἐν ἡμῖν ἐκσφενδονήσῃ ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τῆς ζωῆς ἡμῶν. Thus then speaks He to us; The sacrifice unto God is a broken heart, the smell of a sweet savor unto the Lord is a heart that glorifies its Maker. We ought therefore, brethren, to learn accurately concerning our salvation, lest the Evil One having effected an entrance of error in us should fling us away from our life.

Chapter 3

Fast that pleases God

1 Λέγει οὖν πάλιν περὶ τούτων πρὸς αὐτούς· Ἱνατί μοι νηστεύετε, λέγει κύριος, ὡς σήμερον ἀκουσθῆναι ἐν κραυγῇ τὴν φωνὴν ὑμῶν; οὐ ταύτην τὴν νηστείαν ἐξελεξάμην, λέγει κύριος, οὐκ ἄνθρωπον ταπεινοῦντα τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ, He speaks again therefore to them concerning these things; Why do you fast for Me, says the Lord, so that your voice is heard this day crying aloud? This is not the fast which have chosen, says the Lord; not a man abasing his soul;
2 οὐδ᾿ ἄν κάμψητε ὡς κρίκον τὸν τράχηλον ὑμῶν καὶ σάκκον ἐνδύσησθε καὶ σποδὸν ὑποστρώσητε, οὐδ᾿ οὕτως καλέσετε νηστείαν δεκτήν. not though you should bend your neck as a hoop, and put on sackcloth and make your bed of ashes, not even so shall you call a fast that is acceptable.
3 πρὸς ἡμᾶς δὲ λέγει· Ἰδοὺ αὕτη νηστεία ἣν ἐγὼ ἐξελεξάμην, λέγει κύριος· λύε πάν σύνδεσμον ἀδικίας, διάλυε στραγγαλιὰς βιαίων συναλλαγμάτων, ἀπόστελλε τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει, καὶ πᾶσαν ἄδικον συγγραφὴν διάσπα. διάθρυπτε πεινῶσιν τὸν ἄρτον σου, καὶ γυμνὸν ἐὰν ἴδῃς περίβαλε· ἀστέγους εἴσαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκον σου, καὶ ἐὰν ἴδῃς ταπεινόν, οὐχ ὑπερόψῃ αὐτόν, οὐδὲ ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκείων τοῦ σπέρματός σου. But unto us He says; Behold, this is the fast which I have chosen, says the Lord; loosen every band of wickedness, untie the tightened cords of forcible contracts, send away the broken ones released and tear in pieces every unjust bond. Break your bread to the hungry, and if you see one naked clothe him; bring the shelterless into your house, and if you see a humble man, you shall not despise him, neither shall any one of your household and of your own seed.
4 τότε ῥαγήσεται πρώϊμον τὸ φῶς σου, καὶ τὰ ἰάματά[2] σου ταχέως ἀνατελεῖ, καὶ προπορεύσεται ἔμπροσθέν σου δικαιοσύνη, καὶ δόξα τοῦ θεοῦ περιστελεῖ σε. Then shall your light break forth in the morning, and your healing shall arise quickly, and righteousness shall go forth before your face, and the glory of God shall environ you.
5 τότε βοήσεις, καὶ θεὸς ἐπακούσεταί σου, ἔτι λαλοῦντός σου ἐρεῖ· Ἰδοὺ πάρειμι· ἐὰν ἀφέλῃς ἀπὸ σου σύνδεσμον καὶ χειροτονίαν καὶ ῥῆμα γογγυσμοῦ, καὶ δῷς πεινῶντι τὸν ἄρτον σου ἐκ ψυχῆς σου, καὶ ψυχὴν τεταπεινωμένην ἐλεήσῃς. Then shall you cry out and God shall hear you; while you are still speaking, He shall say 'Lo, I am here'; if you shall take away from you the yoke and the stretching forth of the finger and the word of murmuring, and shall give your bread to the hungry heartily, and shall pity the abased soul.
6 εἰς τοῦτο οὖν, ἀδελφοί, μακρόθυμος προβλέψας, ὡς ἐν ἀκεραιοσύνῃ πιστεύσει λαός, ὃν ἡτοίμασεν ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ αὐτοῦ, προεφανέρωσεν ἡμῖν περὶ πάντων, ἵνα μὴ προσρησσώμεθα ὡς ἐπήλυτοι τῷ ἐκείνων νόμῳ. To this end therefore, my brethren, He that is long-suffering, foreseeing that the people whom He had prepared in His well-beloved would believe in simplicity, manifested to us beforehand concerning all things, that we might not as novices shipwreck ourselves upon their law.

Chapter 4

Last days are near

1 Δεῖ οὖν ἡμᾶς περὶ τῶν ἐνεστώτων ἐπιπολὺ ἐραυνῶντας ἐκζητεῖν τὰ δυνάμενα ἡμᾶς σῴζειν. φύγωμεν οὖν τελείως ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἔργων τῆς ἀνομίας, μήποτε καταλάβῃ ἡμᾶς τὰ ἔργα τῆς ἀνομίας· καὶ μισήσωμεν τὴν πλάνην τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ, ἵνα εἰς τὸν μέλλοντα ἀγαπηθῶμεν. It behooves us therefore to investigate deeply concerning the present, and to search out the things which have power to save us. Let us therefore flee altogether from all the works of lawlessness, lest the works of lawlessness overpower us; and let us loathe the error of the present time, that we may be loved for that which is to come.
2 μὴ δῶμεν τῇ ἑαυτῶν ψυχῇ ἄνεσιν, ὥστε ἔχειν αὐτὴν ἐξουσίαν μετὰ ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ πονηρῶν συντρέχειν, μήποτε ὁμοιωθῶμεν αὐτοῖς. Let us give no relaxation to our soul that it should have liberty to consort with sinners and wicked men, lest perhaps we be made like unto them.
3 τὸ τέλειον σκάνδαλον ἤγγικεν, περὶ οὗ γέγραπται, ὡς Ἐνὼχ λέγει. Εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ δεσπότης συντέτμηκεν τοὺς καιροὺς καὶ τὰς ἡμέρας, ἵνα ταχύνῃ ἠγαπημένος αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν κληρονομίαν ἥξῃ. The last offence is at hand, concerning which the scripture speaks, as Enoch says. For to this end the Master has cut the seasons and the days short, that His beloved might hasten and come to His inheritance.
4 λέγει δὲ οὕτως καὶ προφήτης· Βασιλεῖαι δέκα ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς βασιλεύσουσιν, καὶ ἐξαναστήσεται ὄπισθεν[3] μικρὸς βασιλεύς, ὃς ταπεινώσει τρεῖς ὑφ᾿ ἓν τῶν βασιλειῶν. And the prophet also speaks in this way; Ten kingdoms shall reign upon the earth, and after them shall arise another king, who shall bring low three of the kings under one.
5 ὁμοίως περὶ τοῦ αὐτοῦ λέγει Δανιήλ· Καὶ εἶδον τὸ τέταρτον θηρίον τὸ πονηρὸν καὶ ἰσχυρὸν καὶ χαλεπώτερον παρὰ πάντα τὰ θηρία τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ ὡς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἀνέτειλεν δέκα κέρατα, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν μικρὸν κέρας παραφυάδιον, καὶ ὡς ἐταπείνωσεν ὑφ᾿ ἓν τρία τῶν μεγάλων κεράτων. In like manner Daniel speaks concerning the same; And I saw the fourth beast to be wicked and strong and more intractable than all the beasts of the earth, and how there arose from him ten horns, and from these a little horn and excrescence, and how that it abased under one three of the great horns.

Lesson from Israel's failure

6 Συνιέναι οὖν ὀφείλετε. ἔτι δὲ καὶ τοῦτο ἐρωτῶ ὑμᾶς ὡς εἷς ἐξ ὑμῶν ὤν, ἰδίως δὲ καὶ πάντας ἀγαπῶν ὑπὲρ τὴν ψυχήν μου, προσέχειν νῦν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ μὴ ὁμοιοῦσθαί τισιν ἐπισωρεύοντας ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ὑμῶν λέγοντας, ὅτι διαθήκη ἐκείνων καὶ ἡμῶν. You ought therefore to understand. Moreover I ask you this one thing besides, as being one of yourselves and loving you all in particular more than my own soul, to give heed to yourselves now, and not to liken yourselves to certain persons who pile up sin upon sin, saying that our covenant remains to them also.
7 ἡμῶν μέν· ἀλλ᾿ ἐκεῖνοι οὕτως εἰς τέλος ἀπώλεσαν αὐτὴν λαβόντος ἤδη τοῦ Μωϋσέως. λέγει γὰρ γραφή· Καὶ ἦν Μωϋσῆς ἐν τῷ ὄρει νηστεύων ἡμέρας τεσσαράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσαράκοντα, καὶ ἔλαβεν τὴν διαθήκην ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, πλάκας λιθίνας γεγραμμένας τῷ δακτύλῳ τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ κυρίου. Ours it is; but they lost it in this way for ever, when Moses had just received it. For the scripture says; And Moses was in the mountain fasting forty days and forty nights, and he received the covenant from the Lord, even tablets of stone written with the finger of the hand of the Lord.
8 ἀλλὰ ἐπιστραφέντες ἐπὶ τὰ εἴδωλα ἀπώλεσαν αὐτήν. λέγει γὰρ οὕτως κύριος. Μωϋσῆ Μωϋσῆ, κατάβηθι τὸ τάχος, ὅτι ἠνόμησεν λαός σου, οὓς ἐξήγαγες ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, καὶ συνῆκεν Μωϋσῆς καὶ ἔριψεν τὰς δύο πλάκας ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ· καὶ συνετρίβη αὐτῶν διαθήκη, ἵνα τοῦ ἠγαπημένου Ἰησοῦ ἐγκατασφραγισθῇ εἰς τὴν καρδίαν ἡμῶν ἐν ἐλπίδι τῆς πίστεως αὐτοῦ. But they lost it by turning unto idols. For thus says the Lord; Moses, Moses, come down quickly; for your people whom you brought out of the land of Egypt has done unlawfully. And Moses understood, and threw the two tables from his hands; and their covenant was broken in pieces, that the covenant of the beloved Jesus might be sealed unto our hearts in the hope which springs from faith in Him.
9 πολλὰ δὲ θέλων γράφειν, οὐχ ὡς διδάσκαλος, ἀλλ᾿ ὡς πρέπει ἀγαπῶντι ἀφ᾿ ὧν ἔχομεν μὴ ἐλλείπειν, γράφειν ἐσπούδασα, περίψημα ὑμῶν. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becomes one who loves you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave.
Διὸ προσέχωμεν ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις· οὐδὲν γὰρ ὠφελήσει ἡμᾶς πᾶς χρόνος τῆς πίστεως ἡμῶν, ἐὰν μὴ νῦν ἐν τῷ ἀνόμῳ καιρῷ καὶ τοῖς μέλλουσιν σκανδάλοις, ὡς πρέπει υἱοῖς θεοῦ, ἀντιστῶμεν, ἵνα μὴ σχῇ παρείσδυσιν μέλας. Why let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becomes sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance.
10 φύγωμεν ἀπὸ πάσης ματαιότητος, μισήσωμεν τελείως τὰ ἔργα τῆς πονηρᾶς ὁδοῦ. μὴ καθ᾿ ἑαυτοὺς ἐνδύνοντες μονάζετε ὡς ἤδη δεδικαιωμένοι, ἀλλ᾿ ἐπὶ[4] τὸ αὐτὸ συνερχόμενοι συνζητεῖτε περὶ τοῦ κοινῇ συμφέροντος. Let us flee from all vanity, let us entirely hate the works of the evil way. Do not entering in privily stand apart by yourselves, as if you were already justified, but assemble yourselves together and consult concerning the common welfare.
11 λέγει γὰρ γραφή· Οὐαὶ οἱ συνετοὶ ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐνώπιον ἑαυτῶν ἐπιστήμονες. γενώμεθα πνευματικοί, γενώμεθα ναὸς τέλειος τῷ θεῷ. ἐφ᾿ ὅσον ἐστὶν ἐν ἡμῖν, μελετῶμεν τὸν φόβον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ φυλάσσειν ἀγωνιζώμεθα τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ, ἵνα ἐν τοῖς δικαιώμασιν αὐτοῦ εὐφρανθῶμεν. For the scripture says; Woe unto them who are wise for themselves, and understanding in their own sight. Let us become spiritual, let us become a temple perfect unto God. As far as in us lies, let us exercise ourselves in the fear of God, [and] let us strive to keep His commandments, that we may rejoice in His ordinances.
12  κύριος ἀπροσωπολήμπτως κρινεῖ τὸν κόσμον. ἕκαστος καθὼς ἐποίησεν κομιεῖται. ἐὰν ἀγαθός, δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ προηγήσεται αὐτοῦ· ἐὰν πονηρός, μισθὸς τῆς πονηρίας ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ· The Lord judges the world without respect of persons; each man shall receive according to his deeds. If he be good, his righteousness shall go before him in the way; if he be evil, the recompense of his evil-doing is before him; lest perhaps,
13 ἵνα μήποτε ἐπαναπαύομενοι ὡς κλητοὶ ἐπικαθυπνώσωμεν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἡμῶν, καὶ πονηρὸς ἄρχων λαβὼν τὴν καθ᾿ ἡμῶν ἐξουσίαν ἀπώσηται ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ κυρίου. if we relax as men that are called, we should slumber over our sins, and the prince of evil receive power against us and thrust us out from the kingdom of the Lord.
14 ἔτι δὲ κἀκεῖνο, ἀδελφοί μου, νοεῖτε· ὅταν βλέπετε μετὰ τηλικαῦτα σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα γεγονότα ἐν τῷ Ἰσραήλ, καὶ οὕτως ἐγκαταλελεῖφθαι αὐτούς· προσέχωμεν, μήποτε, ὡς γέγραπται, πολλοὶ κλητοί, ὀλίγοι δὲ ἐκλεκτοὶ εὑρεθῶμεν. Moreover understand this also, my brothers. When you see that after so many signs and wonders wrought in Israel, even then they were abandoned, let us give heed, lest perhaps we be found, as the scripture says, many are called but few are chosen.

Chapter 5

Sufferings of Christ

1 Εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ ὑπέμεινεν κύριος παραδοῦναι τὴν σάρκα εἰς καταφθοράν, ἵνα τῇ ἀφέσει τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἁγνισθῶμεν, ἐστιν ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ ῥαντίσματος αὐτοῦ. For to this end the Lord endured to deliver His flesh unto corruption, that by the remission of sins we might be cleansed, which cleansing is through the blood of His sprinkling.
2 γέγραπται γὰρ περὶ αὐτοῦ μὲν πρὸς τὸν Ἰσραήλ, δὲ πρὸς ἡμᾶς, λέγει δὲ οὕτως· Ἐτραυματίσθη διὰ τὰς ἀνομίας ἡμῶν καὶ μεμαλάκισται διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν· τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς ἰάθημεν· ὡς πρόβατον ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἤχθη, καὶ ὡς ἀμνὸς ἄφωνος ἐναντίον τοῦ κείραντος αὐτόν. For the scripture concerning Him containeth some things relating to Israel, and some things relating to us. And it speaks thus; He was wounded for our transgressions, and He has been bruised for our sins; by His stripes we were healed. As a sheep He was led to slaughter, as a lamb is dumb before his shearer.
3 οὐκοῦν ὑπερευχαριστεῖν ὀφείλομεν τῷ κυρίῳ, ὅτι καὶ τὰ παρεληλυθότα ἡμῖν ἐγνώρισεν καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἐνεστῶσιν ἡμᾶς ἐσόφισεν, καὶ εἰς τὰ μέλλοντα οὐκ ἐσμὲν ἀσύνετοι. We ought therefore to be very thankful unto the Lord, for that He both revealed unto us the past, and made us wise in the present, and as regards the future we are not without understanding.
4 λέγει δὲ γραφή· Οὐκ ἀδίκως ἐκτείνεται δίκτυα πτερωτοῖς. τοῦτο λέγει, ὅτι δικαίως ἀπολεῖται ἄνθρωπος, ὃς ἔχων ὁδοῦ δικαιοσύνης γνῶσιν ἑαυτὸν εἰς ὁδὸν σκότους ἀποσυνέχει. Now the scripture says; Not unjustly is the net spread for the birds. He means this that a man shall justly perish, who having the knowledge of the way of righteousness forces himself into the way of darkness.
5 ἔτι δὲ καὶ τοῦτο, ἀδελφοί μου· εἰ κύριος ὑπέμεινεν παθεῖν περὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἡμῶν, ὢν παντὸς τοῦ κόσμου κύριος εἶπεν θεὸς ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου· Ποιήσωμεν ἄνθρωπον κατ᾿ εἰκόνα καὶ καθ᾿ ὁμοίωσιν ἡμετέραν· πῶς οὖν ὑπέμεινεν ὑπὸ χειρὸς ἀνθρώπων παθεῖν; There is yet this also, my brethren; if the Lord endured to suffer for our souls, though He was Lord of the whole world, unto whom God said from the foundation of the world, Let us make man after our image and likeness, how then did He endure to suffer at the hand of men?
6 μάθετε. οἱ προφῆται, ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἔχοντες τὴν χάριν, εἰς αὐτὸν ἐπροφήτευσαν· αὐτὸς δέ, ἵνα καταργήσῃ τὸν θάνατον καὶ τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν δείξῃ, ὅτι ἐν σαρκὶ ἔδει αὐτὸν φανερωθῆναι, ὑπέμεινεν, Understand. The prophets, receiving grace from Him, prophesied concerning Him. But He Himself endured that He might destroy death and show forth the resurrection of the dead, for that He must needs be manifested in the flesh;
7 ἵνα τοῖς πατράσιν τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν ἀποδῷ, καὶ αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ τὸν λαὸν τὸν καινοί ἑτοιμάζων ἐπιδείξῃ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ὤν, ὅτι τὴν ἀνάστασιν αὐτὸς ποιήσας κρινεῖ. that at the same time He might redeem the promise made to the fathers, and by preparing the new people for Himself might show, while He was on earth, that having brought about the resurrection He will Himself exercise judgment.
8 πέρας γέ τοι διδάσκων τὸν Ἰσραὴλ καὶ τηλικαῦτα τέρατα καὶ σημεῖα ποιῶν ἐκήρυσσεν, καὶ ὑπερηγάπησεν αὐτόν. Yes and further, He preached teaching Israel and performing so many wonders and miracles, and He loved him exceedingly.
9 ὅτε δὲ τοὺς ἰδίους ἀποστόλους τοὺς μέλλοντας κηρύσσειν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον αὐτοῦ ἐξελέξατο, ὄντας ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν ἁμαρτίαν ἀνομωτέρους, ἵνα δείξῃ, ὅτι οὐκ ἦλθεν καλέσαι δικαίους, ἀλλὰ ἁμαρτωλούς, τότε ἐφανέρωσεν ἑαυτὸν εἶναι υἱὸν θεοῦ. And when He chose His own apostles who were to proclaim His Gospel, who that He might show that He came not to call the righteous but sinners were sinners above every sin, then He manifested Himself to be the Son of God.
10 εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἦλθεν ἐν σαρκί, οὐδ᾿ ἄν πως οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἐσώθησαν βλέποντες αὐτόν, ὅτε τόν μέλλοντα μὴ εἶναι ἥλιον, ἔργον τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ ὑπάρχοντα, ἐμβλέποντες οὐκ ἰσχύουσιν εἰς τὰς ἀκτῖνας αὐτοῦ ἀντοφθαλμῆσαι· For if He had not come in the flesh neither would men have looked upon Him and been saved, forasmuch as when they look upon the sun that shall cease to be, which is the work of His own hands, they cannot face its rays.
11 οὐκοῦν υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς τοῦτο ἐν σαρκὶ ἦλθεν, ἵνα τὸ τέλειον τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἀνακεφαλαιώσῃ τοῖς διώξασιν ἐν θανάτῳ τοὺς προφήτας αὐτοῦ. Therefore the Son of God came in the flesh to this end, that He might sum up the complete tale of their sins against those who persecuted and killed His prophets.
12 οὐκοῦν εἰς τοῦτο ὑπέμεινεν. λέγει γὰρ θεὸς τὴν πληγὴν τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ ὅτι ἐξ αὐτῶν· Ὅταν πατάξωσιν τὸν ποιμένα ἑαυτῶν, τότε ἀπολεῖται τὰ πρόβατα τῆς ποίμνης. To this end therefore He endured. For God says of the wounds of His flesh that they came from them; When they shall smite their own shepherd, then shall the sheep of the flock be lost.
13 αὐτὸς δὲ ἠθέλησεν οὕτω παθεῖν· ἔδει γάρ, ἵνα ἐπὶ ξύλου πάθῃ. λέγει γὰρ προφητεύων ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ. Φεῖσαί μου τῆς ψυχῆς ἀπὸ ῥομφαίας, καὶ· Καθήλωσόν μου τὰς σάρκας, ὅτι πονηρευομένων συναγωγαὶ ἐπανέστησάν μοι. But He Himself desired so to suffer; for it was necessary for Him to suffer on a tree. For he who prophesied said concerning Him, Spare My soul form the sword; and, Pierce My flesh with nails, for the congregations of evil-doers have risen up against Me.
14 καὶ πάλιν λέγει· ἰδού, τέθεικά μου τὸν νῶτον εἰς μάστιγας, τὰς δὲ σιαγόνας εἰς ῥαπίσματα. τὸ δὲ πρόσωπόν μου ἔθηκα ὡς στερεὰν πέτραν. And again He says; Behold I have given My back to stripes, and My cheeks to smitings, and My face did I set as a hard rock.

Chapter 6

1 ὅτε οὖν ἐποίησεν τὴν ἐντολήν, τί λέγει; Τίς κρινόμενός μοι; ἀντιστήτω μοι· τίς δικαιούμενός μοι; ἐγγισάτω τῷ παιδὶ κυρίου. When then He gave the commandment, what says He? Who is he who disputes with Me? Let him oppose Me. Or who is he who goes to law with Me? Let him draw nigh unto the servant of the Lord,
2 οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὑμεῖς πάντες ὡς ἱμάτιον παλαιωθήσεσθε, καὶ σὴς καταφάγεται ὑμᾶς. καὶ πάλιν λέγει προφήτης, ἐπεὶ ὡς λίθος ἰσχυρὸς ἐτέθη εἰς συντριβήν· ἰδού, ἐμβαλῶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια Σιὼν λίθον πολυτελῆ, ἐκλεκτόν, ἀκρογωνιαῖον, ἔντιμον. Woe unto you, for you all shall wax old as a garment, and the moth shall consume you. And again the prophet says, seeing that as a hard stone He was ordained for crushing; Behold I will put into the fountains of Zion a stone very precious, elect, a chief corner-stone, honorable.
3 εἶτα τί λέγει; Καὶ ὃς ἐλπίσει ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν ζήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. ἐπὶ λίθον οὖν ἡμῶν ἐλπίς; μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλ᾿ ἐπεὶ ἐν ἰσχύϊ τέθεικεν τὴν σάρκα αὐτοῦ κύριος. λέγει γάρ· Καὶ ἔθηκέ με ὡς στερεὰν πέτραν. Then again what says He; And whosoever shall set his hope on Him, shall live forever. Is our hope then set upon a stone? Far be it. But it is because the Lord has set His flesh in strength. For He says; And He set Me as a hard rock.
4 λέγει δὲ πάλιν προφήτης· Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας. καὶ πάλιν λέγει· Αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡμέρα μεγάλη καὶ θαυμαστή, ἣν ἐποίησεν κύριος. And the prophet says again; The stone which the builders rejected, this became the head and the corner. And again He says; This is the great and wonderful day, which the Lord made.
5 ἁπλούστερον ὑμῖν γράφω, ἵνα συνιῆτε· ἐγὼ περίψημα τῆς ἀγάπης ὑμῶν. I write to you the more simply, that you may understand, I who am the offscouring of your love.
6 τί οὖν λέγει πάλιν προφήτης; Περιέσχεν με συναγωγὴ πονηρευομένων, ἐκύκλωσάν με ὡσεὶ μέλισσαι κηρίον, καί· Ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον. What then says the prophet again? The assembly of evildoers gathered around Me, they surrounded Me as bees surround a comb; and; For My garment they cast a lot.
7 ἐν σαρκὶ οὖν αὐτοῦ μέλλοντος φανεροῦσθαι καὶ πάσχειν, προεφανερώθη τὸ πάθος. λέγει γὰρ προφήτης ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραήλ· Οὐαὶ τῇ ψυχῇ αὐτῶν, ὅτι βεβούλευνται βουλὴν πονηρὰν καθ᾿ ἑαυτῶν, εἰπόντες· Δήσωμεν τὸν δίκαιον, ὅτι δύσχρηστος ἡμῖν ἐστίν. Forasmuch then as He was about to be manifested in the flesh and to suffer, His suffering was manifested beforehand. For the prophet says concerning Israel; Woe unto their soul, for they have counseled evil counsel against themselves saying, Let us bind the righteous one, for he is unprofitable for us.

Land of milk and honey

8 Τί λέγει ἄλλος προφήτης Μωϋσῆς αὐτοῖς; ἰδού, τάδε λέγει κύριος θεός· Εἰσέλθατε εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν ἀγαθήν, ἣν ὤμοσεν κύριος τῷ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακώβ, καὶ κατακληρονομήσατε αὐτήν, γῆν ῥέουσαν γάλα καὶ μέλι. What says the other prophet Moses unto them? Behold, these things says the Lord God; enter into the good land which the Lord swear unto Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and inherit it, a land flowing with milk and honey.
9 τί δὲ λέγει γνῶσις; μάθετε. ἐλπίσατε, φησίν, ἐπὶ τὸν ἐν σαρκὶ μέλλοντα φανεροῦσθαι ὑμῖν Ἰησοῦν. ἄνθρωπος γὰρ γῆ ἐστιν πάσχουσα· ἀπὸ προσώπου γὰρ τῆς γῆς πλάσις τοῦ Ἀδὰμ ἐγένετο. But what says knowledge? Understand. Set your hope on Him who is about to be manifested to you in the flesh, even Jesus. For man is earth suffering; for from the face of the earth came the creation of Adam.
10 τί οὖν λέγει· Εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν ἀγαθήν, γῆν ῥέουσαν γάλα καὶ μέλι; εὐλογητὸς κύριος ἡμῶν, ἀδελφοί, σοφίαν καὶ νοῦν θέμενος ἐν ἡμῖν τῶν κρυφίων αὐτοῦ· λέγει γὰρ προφήτης παραβολὴν κυρίου· τίς νοήσει, εἰ μὴ σοφὸς καὶ ἐπιστήμων καὶ ἀγαπῶν τὸν κύριον αὐτοῦ; What then says He? Into the good land, a land flowing with milk and honey. Blessed is our Lord, brethren, who established among us wisdom and understanding of His secret things. For the prophet speaks a parable concerning the Lord. Who shall comprehend, save he who is wise and prudent and that loves his Lord?
11 ἐπεὶ οὖν ἀνακαινίσας ἡμᾶς ἐν τῇ ἀφέσει τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν, ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶς ἄλλον τύπον, ὡς παιδίων ἔχειν τὴν ψυχήν, ὡς ἄν δὴ ἀναπλάσσοντος αὐτοῦ ἡμᾶς. Forasmuch then as He renewed us in the remission of sins, He made us to be a new type, so that we should have the soul of children, as if He were recreating us.
12 λέγει γὰρ γραφὴ περί ἡμῶν, ὡς λέγει τῷ υἱῷ· Ποιήσωμεν κατ᾿ εἰκόνα καὶ καθ᾿ ὁμοίωσιν ἡμῶν τὸν ἄνθρωπον, καὶ ἀρχέτωσαν τῶν θηρίων τῆς γῆς καὶ τῶν πετεινῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῶν ἰχθύων τῆς θαλάσσης. καὶ εἶπεν κύριος, ἰδὼν τὸ καλὸν πλάσμα ἡμῶν· αὐξάνεσθε καὶ πληθύνεσθε καὶ πληρώσατε τὴν γῆν. ταῦτα πρὸς τὸν υἱόν. For the scripture says concerning us, how He says to the Son; Let us make man after our image and after our likeness, and let them rule over the beasts of the earth and the fowls of the heaven and the fishes of the sea. And the Lord said when He saw the fair creation of us men; Increase and multiply and fill the earth. These words refer to the Son.
13 πάλιν σοί ἐπιδείξω, πῶς πρὸς ἡμᾶς λέγει. δευτέραν πλάσιν ἐπ᾿ ἐσχάτων ἐποίησεν. λέγει δὲ κύριος· ἰδού, ποιῶ τὰ ἔσχατα ὡς τὰ πρῶτα. εἰς τοῦτο οὖν ἐκήρυξεν προφήτης· Εἰσέλθατε εἰς γῆν ῥέουσαν γάλα καὶ μέλι καὶ κατακυριεύσατε αὐτῆς. Again I will show you how the Lord speaks concerning us. He made a second creation at the last; and the Lord says; Behold I make the last things as the first. In reference to this then the prophet preached; Enter into a land flowing with milk and honey, and be lords over it.
14 ἴδε οὖν, ἡμεῖς ἀναπεπλάσμεθα, καθὼς πάλιν ἐν ἑτέρῳ προφήτῃ λέγει· ἰδού, λέγει κύριος, ἐξελῶ τούτων, τουτέστιν ὧν προέβλεπεν τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου, τὰς λιθίνας καρδίας καὶ ἐμβαλῶ σαρκίνας· ὅτι αὐτὸς ἐν σαρκὶ ἔμελλεν φανεροῦσθαι καὶ ἐν ἡμῖν κατοικεῖν. Behold then we have been created anew, as He says again in another prophet; Behold, says the Lord, I will take out from these, that is to say, from those whom the Spirit of the Lord foresaw, their stony hearts, and will put into them hearts of flesh; for He Himself was to be manifested in the flesh and to dwell in us.
15 ναὸς γὰρ ἅγιος, ἀδελφοί μου, τῷ κυρίῳ τὸ κατοικητήριον ἡμῶν τῆς καρδίας. For a holy temple unto the Lord, my brethren, is the abode of our heart.
16 λέγει γὰρ κύριος πάλιν· Καὶ ἐν τίνι ὀφθήσομαι τῷ κυρίῳ τῷ θεῷ μου καὶ δοξασθήσομαι; λέγει· ἐξομολογήσομαί σοί ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ ἀδελφῶν μου, καὶ ψαλῶ σοί ἀναμέσον ἐκκλησίας ἁγίων. οὐκοῦν ἡμεῖς ἐσμέν, οὓς εἰσήγαγεν εἰς τὴν γῆν ἀγαθήν. For the Lord says again; For wherein shall I appear unto the Lord my God and be glorified? I will make confession unto You in the assembly of my brethren, and I will sing unto You in the midst of the assembly of the saints. We therefore are they whom He brought into the good land.
17 τί οὖν τὸ γάλα καὶ τὸ μέλι; ὅτι πρῶτον τὸ παιδίον μέλιτι, εἶτα γάλακτι ζωοποιεῖται· οὕτως οὖν καὶ ἡμεῖς τῇ πίστει τῆς ἐπαγγελίας καὶ τῷ λόγῳ ζωοποιούμενοι ζήσομεν κατακυριεύοντες τῆς γῆς. What then is the milk and the honey Because the child is first kept alive by honey, and then by milk. So in like manner we also, being kept alive by our faith in the promise and by the word, shall live and be lords of the earth.
18 προειρήκαμεν δὲ ἐπάνω. Καὶ αὐξανέσθωσαν καὶ πληθυνέσθωσαν καὶ ἀρχέτωσαν τῶν ἰχθύων. τίς οὖν δυνάμενος νῦν ἄρχειν θηρίων ἰχθύων πετεινῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ; αἰσθάνεσθαι γὰρ ὀφείλομεν, ὅτι τὸ ἄρχειν ἐξουσίας ἐστίν, ἵνα τις ἐπιτάξας κυριεύσῃ. Now we have already said above; And let them increase and multiply and rule over the fishes. But who is he who is able [now] to rule over beasts and fishes and fowls of the heaven; for we ought to perceive that to rule implieth power, so that one should give orders and have dominion.
19 εἰ οὖν οὐ γίνεται τοῦτο νῦν, ἄρα ἡμῖν εἴρηκεν, πότε· ὅταν καὶ αὐτοὶ τελειωθῶμεν κληρονόμοι τῆς διαθήκης κυρίου γενέσθαι. If then this comes not to pass now, assuredly He spoke to us for the hereafter, when we ourselves shall be made perfect so that we may become heirs of the covenant of the Lord.

Chapter 7

Lessons about atonement

1 Οὐκοῦν νοεῖτε τέκνα εὐφροσύνης, ὅτι πάντα καλὸς κύριος προεφανέρωσεν ἡμῖν, ἵνα γνῶμεν, κατὰ πάντα εὐχαριστοῦντες ὀφείλομεν αἰνεῖν. Understand therefore, children of gladness, that the good Lord manifested all things to us beforehand, that we might know to whom we ought in all things to render thanksgiving and praise.
2 εἰ οὖν υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, ὢν κύριος καὶ μέλλων κρίνειν ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς, ἔπαθεν, ἵνα πληγὴ αὐτοῦ ζωοποιήσῃ ἡμᾶς· πιστεύσωμεν, ὅτι υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἠδύνατο παθεῖν εἰ μὴ δι᾿ ἡμᾶς. If then the Son of God, being Lord and future Judge of quick and dead, suffered that His wound might give us life, let us believe that the Son of God could not suffer except for our sakes.
3 Ἀλλὰ καὶ σταυρωθεὶς ἐποτίζετο ὄξει καὶ χολῇ. ἀκούσατε, πῶς περὶ τούτου πεφανέρωκαν οἱ ἱερεῖς τοῦ ναοῦ. γεγραμμένης ἐντολῆς· ὃς ἄν μὴ νηστεύσῃ τὴν νηστείαν, θανάτῳ ἐξολεθρευθήσεται, ἐνετείλατο κύριος, ἐπεὶ καὶ αὐτὸς ὑπὲρ τῶν ἡμετέρων ἁμαρτιῶν ἔμελλεν τὸ σκεῦος τοῦ πνεύματος προσφέρειν θυσίαν, ἵνα καὶ τύπος γενόμενος ἐπὶ Ἰσαὰκ τοῦ προσενεχθέντος ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον τελεσθῇ. But moreover when crucified He had vinegar and gall given Him to drink. Hear how on this matter the priests of the temple have revealed. Seeing that there is a commandment in scripture, Whatsoever shall not observe the fast shall surely die, the Lord commanded, because He was in His own person about to offer the vessel of His Spirit a sacrifice for our sins, that the type also which was given in Isaac who was offered upon the alter should be fulfilled.
4 τί οὖν λέγει ἐν τῷ προφήτῃ; Καὶ φαγέτωσαν ἐκ τοῦ τράγου τοῦ προσφερομένου τῇ νηστείᾳ ὑπὲρ πασῶν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν. προσέχετε ἀκριβῶς· Καὶ φαγέτωσαν οἱ ἱερεῖς μόνοι πάντες τὸ ἔντερον ἄπλυτον μετὰ ὄξους. What then says He in the prophet? And let them eat of the goat that is offered at the fast for all their sins. Attend carefully; And let all the priests alone eat the entrails unwashed with vinegar.
5 πρὸς τί; ἐπειδὴ ἐμὲ ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτιῶν μέλλοντα τοῦ λαοῦ μου τοῦ καινοῦ προσφέρειν τὴν σάρκα μου μέλλετε ποτίζειν χολὴν μετὰ ὄξους, φάγετε ὑμεῖς μόνοι, τοῦ λαοῦ νηστεύοντος καὶ κοπτομένου ἐπὶ σάκκου καὶ σποδοῦ. ἵνα δείξῃ, ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν παθεῖν ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν. Why? Since you are to give Me, who am to offer My flesh for the sins of My new people, gall with vinegar to drink, eat you alone, while the people fasts and lament in sackcloth and ashes; that He might show that He must suffer at their hands.
6  ἐνετείλατο, προσέχετε· Λάβετε δύο τράγους καλοὺς καὶ ὁμοίους καὶ προσενέγκατε, καὶ λαβέτω ἱερεὺς τὸν ἕνα εἰς ὁλοκαύτωμα ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτιῶν. Attend to the commandments which He gave. Take two goats, fair and alike, and offer them, and let the priest take the one for a whole burnt offering for sins.
7 τὸν δὲ ἕνα τί ποιήσωσιν; Ἐπικατάρατος, φησίν, εἷς. προσέχετε, πῶς τύπος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ φανεροῦται· But the other one–what must they do with it? Accursed, says He, is the one. Give heed how the type of Jesus is revealed.
8 Καὶ ἐμπτύσατε πάντες καὶ κατακεντήσατε καὶ περίθετε τὸ ἔριον τὸ κόκκινον περὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ, καὶ οὕτως εἰς ἔρημον βληθήτω. καὶ ὅταν γένηται οὕτως, ἄγει βαστάζων τὸν τράγον εἰς τὴν ἔρημον καὶ ἀφαιρεῖ τὸ ἔριον καὶ ἐπιτίθησιν αὐτὸ ἐπὶ φρύγανον τὸ λεγόμενον ῥαχή, οὗ καὶ τοὺς βλαστοὺς εἰώθαμεν τρώγειν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ εὑρίσκοντες· οὕτω μόνης τῆς ῥαχοῦς οἱ καρποὶ γλυκεῖς εἰσιν. And do you all spit upon it and goad it, and place scarlet wool about its head, and so let it be cast into the wilderness. And when it is so done, he who takes the goat into the wilderness leads it, and takes off the wool, and puts it upon the branch which is called Rachia, the same whereof we are inclined to eat the shoots when we find them in the country. Of this briar alone is the fruit thus sweet.
9 τί οὖν τοῦτό ἐστιν; προσέχετε· τὸν μὲν ἕνα ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον, τὸν δὲ ἕνα ἐπικατάρατον, καὶ ὅτι τὸν ἐπικατάρατον ἐστεφανωμένον; ἐπειδὴ ὄψονται αὐτὸν τότε τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τὸν ποδήρη ἔχοντα τὸν κόκκινον περὶ τὴν σάρκα καὶ ἐροῦσιν· οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν, ὅν ποτε ἡμεῖς ἐσταυρώσαμεν ἐξουθενήσαντες καὶ κατακεντήσαντες καὶ ἐμπτύσαντες; ἀληθῶς οὗτος ἦν, τότε λέγων ἑαυτὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ εἶναι. What then means this? Give heed. The one at the altar, and the other accursed. And moreover the accursed one crowned. For they shall see Him in that day wearing the long scarlet robe about His flesh, and shall say, Is not this He, Whom once we crucified and set at nought and spat upon; verily this was He, Who then said that He was the Son of God.
10 πῶς γὰρ ὅμοιος ἐκείνῳ; εἰς τοῦτο ὁμοίους τοὺς τράγους, καλούς, ἴσους, ἵνα, ὅταν ἴδωσιν αὐτὸν τότε ἐρχόμενον, ἐκπλαγῶσιν ἐπὶ τῇ ὁμοιότητι τοῦ τράγου. οὐκοῦν ἴδε τὸν τύπον τοῦ μέλλοντος πάσχειν Ἰησοῦ. For how is He like the goat? For this reason it says the goats shall be fair and alike, that, when they shall see Him coming then, they may be astonished at the likeness of the goat. Therefore behold the type of Jesus that was to suffer.
11 τί δέ, ὅτι τὸ ἔριον[5] μέσον τῶν ἀκανθῶν τιθέασιν; τύπος ἐστὶν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ θέμενος, ὅτι ὃς ἐὰν θέλῃ τὸ ἔριον ἆραι τὸ κόκκινον, δεῖ αὐτὸν πολλὰ παθεῖν διὰ τὸ εἶναι φοβερὰν τὴν ἄκανθαν, καὶ θλιβέντα κυριεῦσαι αὐτοῦ. οὕτω, φησίν, οἱ θέλοντές με ἰδεῖν καὶ ἅψασθαί μου τῆς βασιλείας ὀφείλουσιν θλιβέντες καὶ παθόντες λαβεῖν με. But what means it, that they place the wool in the midst of the thorns? It is a type of Jesus set forth for the Church, since whosoever should desire to take away the scarlet wool it behoved him to suffer many things owing to the terrible nature of the thorn, and through affliction to win the mastery over it. Thus, He says, they that desire to see Me, and to attain unto My kingdom, must lay hold on Me through tribulation and affliction.

Chapter 8

Lessons about the red heifer

1 Τίνα δὲ δοκεῖτε τύπον εἶναι, ὅτι ἐντέταλται τῷ Ἰσραὴλ προσφέρειν δάμαλιν τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐν οἷς εἰσὶν ἁμαρτίαι τέλειαι, καὶ σφάξαντας κατακαίειν, καὶ αἴρειν τότε τὰ παιδία σποδὸν[6] καὶ βάλλειν εἰς ἄγγη, καὶ περιτιθέναι τὸ ἔριον τὸ κόκκινον ἐπὶ ξύλον (ἴδε πάλιν τύπος τοῦ σταυροῦ καὶ τὸ ἔριον τὸ κόκκινον) καὶ τὸ ὕσσωπον, καὶ οὕτως ῥαντίζειν τὰ παιδία καθ᾿ ἕνα τὸν λαόν, ἵνα ἁγνίζωνται ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν; But what do you think the type means, where the commandment is given to Israel that those men, whose sins are full grown, offer an heifer and slaughter and burn it, and then that the children take up the ashes, and cast them into vessels, and twist the scarlet wool on a tree (see here again is the type of the cross and the scarlet wool), and the hyssop, and that this done the children should sprinkle the people one by one, that they may be purified from their sins?
2 νοεῖτε πῶς ἐν ἁπλότητι λέγεται[7] ὑμῖν. μόσχος Ἰησοῦς ἐστίν, οἱ προσφέροντες ἄνδρες ἁμαρτωλοὶ οἱ προσενέγκαντες αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν σφαγήν. εἶτα οὐκέτι ἄνδρες, οὐκέτι ἁμαρτωλῶν δόξα.[8] Understand how in all plainness it is spoken unto you; the calf is Jesus, the men that offer it, being sinners, are they who offered Him for the slaughter. After this it is no more men (who offer); the glory is no more for sinners.
3 οἱ ῥαντίζοντες παῖδες οἱ εὐαγγελισάμενοι ἡμῖν τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ τὸν ἁγνισμὸν τῆς καρδίας, οἷς ἔδωκεν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τὴν ἐξουσίαν (οὖσιν δεκαδύο εἰς μαρτύριον τῶν φυλῶν ὅτι δεκαδύο φυλαὶ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ), εἰς τὸ κηρύσσειν. The children who sprinkle are they who preached unto us the forgiveness of sins and the purification of our heart, they to whom, being twelve in number for a testimony unto the tribes (for there are twelve tribes of Israel), He gave authority over the Gospel, that they should preach it.
4 διὰ τί δὲ τρεῖς παῖδες οἱ ῥαντίζοντες; εἰς μαρτύριον Ἀβραάμ, Ἰσαάκ, Ἰακώβ, ὅτι οὗτοι μεγάλοι τῷ θεῷ. But why are the children who sprinkle three in number? For a testimony unto Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, because these are mighty before God.
5 ὅτι δὲ τὸ ἔριον ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον; ὅτι βασιλεία Ἰησοῦ ἐπὶ ξύλου, καὶ ὅτι οἱ ἐλπίζοντες ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν ζήσονται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. Then there is the placing the wool on the tree. This means that the kingdom of Jesus is on the cross, and that they who set their hope on Him shall live for ever.
6 διὰ τί δὲ ἅμα τὸ ἔριον καὶ τὸ ὕσσωπον; ὅτι ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ ἡμέραι ἔσονται πονηραὶ καὶ ῥυπαραί, ἐν αἷς ἡμεῖς σωθησόμεθα· ὅτι καὶ ἀλγῶν σάρκα διὰ τοῦ ῥύπου τοῦ ὑσσώπου ἰᾶται. And why is there the wool and the hyssop at the same time? Because in His kingdom there shall be evil and foul days, in which we shall be saved; for he who suffers pain in the flesh is healed through the foulness of the hyssop.
7 καὶ διὰ τοῦτο οὕτως γενόμενα ἡμῖν μέν ἐστιν φανερά, ἐκείνοις δὲ σκοτεινά, ὅτι οὐκ ἤκουσαν φωνῆς κυρίου. Now to us indeed it is manifest that these things so befell for this reason, but to them they were dark, because they heard not the voice of the Lord.

Chapter 9

Lessons about circumcision

1 Λέγει γὰρ πάλιν περὶ τῶν ὠτίων, πῶς περιέτεμεν ἡμῶν τὴν καρδίαν. λέγει κύριος ἐν τῷ προφήτῃ· Εἰς ἀκοὴν ὠτίου ὑπήκουσάν μου. καὶ πάλιν λέγει· Ἀκοῇ ἀκούσονται οἱ πόρρωθεν, ἐποίησα γνώσονται. καί· Περιτμήθητε, λέγει κύριος, τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν. Furthermore He says concerning the ears, how that it is our heart which He circumcised. The Lord says in the prophet; With the hearing of the ears they listened to Me. And again He says; They who are afar off shall hear with their ears, and shall perceive what I have done. And; Be circumcised in your hearts, says the Lord.
2 καὶ πάλιν λέγει· Ἄκουε Ἰσραήλ, ὅτι τάδε λέγει κύριος θεός σου. καὶ πάλιν τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου προφητεύει· Τίς ἐστιν θέλων ζῆσαι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα; ἀκοῇ ἀκουσάτω τῆς φωνῆς τοῦ παιδός μου. And again He says; Hear, O Israel, for thus says the Lord your God. Who is he who desires to live forever, let him hear with his ears the voice of My servant.
3 καὶ πάλιν λέγει· Ἄκουε οὐρανέ, καὶ ἐνωτίζου γῆ, ὅτι κύριος ἐλάλησεν ταῦτα εἰς μαρτύριον. καὶ πάλιν λέγει· Ἀκούσατε λόγον κυρίου, ἄρχοντες τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου. καὶ πάλιν λέγει· Ἀκούσατε, τέκνα, φωνῆς βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ. οὐκοῦν[9] περιέτεμεν ἡμῶν τὰς ἀκοάς, ἵνα ἀκούσαντες λόγον πιστεύσωμεν ἡμεῖς. And again He says; Hear, O heaven, and give ear, O earth, for the Lord has spoken these things for a testimony. And again He says; Hear the words of the Lord, you rulers of this people. And again He says; Hear, O my children, the voice of one crying in the wilderness. Therefore He circumcised our ears, that hearing the word we might believe.
4 Ἀλλὰ καὶ περιτομή, ἐφ᾿ πεποίθασιν, κατήργηται. περιτομὴν γὰρ εἴρηκεν οὐ σαρκὸς γενηθῆναι· ἀλλὰ παρέβησαν, ὅτι ἄγγελος πονηρὸς ἐσόφιζεν αὐτούς. But moreover the circumcision, in which they have confidence, is abolished; for He has said that a circumcision not of the flesh should be practiced. But they transgressed, for an evil angel taught them cleverness.
5 λέγει πρὸς αὐτούς· Τάδε λέγει κύριος θεὸς ὑμῶν (ὧδε εὑρίσκω ἐντολήνμὴ σπείρητε ἐπ᾿ ἀκάνθαις, περιτμήθητε τῷ κυρίῳ ὑμῶν. καὶ τί λέγει; Περιτμήθητε τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν, καὶ τὸν τράχηλον ὑμῶν οὐ σκληρυνεῖτε. λάβε πάλιν· ἰδού, λέγει κύριος, πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἀπερίτμητα ἀκροβυστίαν, δὲ λαὸς οὗτος ἀπερίτμητος καρδίας. He says unto them; Thus says the Lord your God (so I find the commandment); sow not upon thorns, be circumcised in to your Lord. And what does He say? Be circumcised in the hardness of your heart; and then you will not harden your neck. Take this again; Behold, says the Lord, all the Gentiles are uncircumcised in their foreskin, but this people is uncircumcised in their hearts.
6 Ἀλλ᾿ ἐρεῖς· Καὶ μὴν περιτέτμηται λαὸς εἰς σφραγῖδα. ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶς Σύρος καὶ Ἄραψ καὶ πάντες οἱ ἱερεῖς τῶν εἰδώλων. ἄρα οὖν κἀκεῖνοι ἐκ τῆς διαθήκης αὐτῶν εἰσίν; ἀλλὰ καὶ οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ἐν περιτομῇ εἰσίν. But you will say; In truth the people has been circumcised for a seal. No, but so likewise is every Syrian and Arabian and all the priests of the idols. Do all those then too belong to their covenant? Moreover the Egyptians also are included among the circumcised.
7 Μάθετε οὖν, τέκνα ἀγάπης, περὶ πάντων πλουσίως, ὅτι Ἀβραάμ, πρῶτος περιτομὴν δούς, ἐν πνεύματι προβλέψας εἰς τὸν Ἰησοῦν περιέτεμεν, λαβὼν τριῶν γραμμάτων δόγματα. Learn therefore, children of love, concerning all things abundantly, that Abraham, who first appointed circumcision, looked forward in the spirit unto Jesus, when he circumcised having received the ordinances of three letters.
8 λέγει γάρ· Καὶ περιέτεμεν Ἀβραὰμ ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου αὐτοῦ ἄνδρας δεκαοκτὼ καὶ τριακοσίους. τίς οὖν δοθεῖσα αὐτῷ γνῶσις; μάθετε, ὅτι τοὺς δεκαοκτὼ πρώτους, καὶ διάστημα ποιήσας λέγει τριακοσίους. τὸ δεκαοκτὼ Ι δέκα, Η ὀκτώ· ἔχεις Ἰησοῦν. ὅτι δὲ σταυρὸς ἐν τῷ Τ ἤμελλεν ἔχειν τὴν χάριν, λέγει καὶ τριακοσίους. δηλοῖ οὖν τὸν μὲν Ἰησοῦν ἐν τοῖς δυσὶν γράμμασιν, καὶ ἐν τῷ ἑνὶ τὸν σταυρόν. For the scripture says; And Abraham circumcised of his household eighteen males and three hundred. What then was the knowledge given unto him? Understand that He says the eighteen first, and then after an interval three hundred In the eighteen 'I' stands for ten, 'H' for eight. Here you have JESUS [IHSOYS]. And because the cross in the 'T' was to have grace, He says also three hundred. So He reveals Jesus in the two letters, and in the remaining one the cross.
9 οἶδεν τὴν ἔμφυτον δωρεὰν τῆς διαθήκης[10] αὐτοῦ θέμενος ἐν ἡμῖν. οὐδεὶς γνησιώτερον ἔμαθεν ἀπ᾿ ἐμοῦ λόγον· ἀλλὰ οἶδα, ὅτι ἄξιοί ἐστε ὑμεῖς. He who placed within us the innate gift of His covenant knows; no man has ever learned from me a more genuine word; but I know that you are worthy.

Chapter 10

Lessons about food laws

1 Ὅτι δὲ Μωϋσῆς εἶπεν· οὐ φάγεσθε χοῖρον οὔτε ἀετὸν οὔτε ὀξύπτερον οὔτε κόρακα οὔτε πάντα ἰχθύν, ὃς οὐκ ἔχει λεπίδα ἐν ἑαυτῷ, τρία ἔλαβεν ἐν τῇ συνέσει[11] δόγματα. But forasmuch as Moses said; You shall not eat seine nor eagle nor falcon nor crow nor any fish which has no scale upon it, he received in his understanding three ordinances.
2 πέρας γέ τοι λέγει αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ Δευτερονομίῳ· Καὶ διαθήσομαι πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον τὰ δικαιώματά μου. ἄρα οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντολὴ θεοῦ τὸ μὴ τρώγειν, Μωϋσῆς δὲ ἐν πνεύματι ἐλάλησεν. Yes and further He says unto them in Deuteronomy; And I will lay as a covenant upon this people My ordinances. So then it is not a commandment of God that they should not bite with their teeth, but Moses spoke it in spirit.
3 τὸ οὖν χοιρίον πρὸς τοῦτο εἶπεν· οὐ κολληθήσῃ, φησίν, ἀνθρώποις τοιούτοις, οἵτινές εἰσιν ὅμοιοι χοίρων· τουτέστιν ὅταν σπαταλῶσιν, ἐπιλανθάνονται τοῦ κυρίου, ὅταν δὲ ὑστεροῦνται, ἐπιγινώσκουσιν τὸν κύριον, ὡς καὶ χοῖρος ὅταν τρώγει τὸν κύριον οὐκ οἶδεν, ὅταν δὲ πεινᾷ κραυγάζει, καὶ λαβὼν πάλιν σιωπᾷ. Accordingly he mentioned the swine with this intent. You shall not cleave, says he, to such men who are like unto swine; that is, when they are in luxury they forget the Lord, but when they are in want they recognize the Lord, just as the swine when it eats knows not his lord, but when it is hungry it cries out, and when it has received food again it is silent.
4 οὐδὲ φάγῃ τὸν ἀετὸν οὐδὲ τὸν ὀξύπτερον οὐδὲ τὸν ἰκτῖνα οὐδὲ τὸν κόρακα· οὐ μή, φησίν, κολληθήσῃ οὐδὲ ὁμοιωθήσῃ ἀνθρώποις τοιούτοις, οἵτινες οὐκ οἴδασιν διὰ κόπου καὶ ἱδρῶτος πορίζειν ἑαυτοῖς τὴν τροφήν, ἀλλὰ ἁρπάζουσιν τὰ ἀλλοτρία ἐν ἀνομίᾳ αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπιτηροῦσιν ὡς ἐν ἀκεραιοσύνῃ περιπατοῦντες καὶ περιβλέπονται, τίνα ἐκδύσωσιν διὰ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, ὡς καὶ τὰ ὄρνεα ταῦτα μόνα ἑαυτοῖς οὐ προίζει τὴν τροφήν, ἀλλὰ ἀργὰ καθήμενα ἐκζητεῖ, πῶς ἀλλοτρίας σάρκας φάγῃ,[12] ὄντα λοιμὰ τῇ πονηρίᾳ αὐτῶν. Neither shall you eat eagle nor falcon nor kite nor crow. You shall not, He says, cleave unto, or be likened to, such men who now not how to provide food for themselves by toil and sweat, but in their lawlessness seize what belongs to others, and as if they were walking in guilelessness watch and search about for some one to rob in their rapacity, just as these birds alone do not provide food for themselves, but sit idle and seek how they may eat the meat that belongs to others, being pestilent in their evil-doings.
5 Καὶ οὐ φάγῃ, φησίν, σμύραιναν οὐδὲ πώλυπα[13] οὐδὲ σηπίαν· οὐ μή, φησίν, ὁμοιωθήσῃ[14] ἀνθρώποις τοιούτοις, οἵτινες εἰς τέλος εἰσὶν ἀσεβεῖς καὶ κεκριμένοι ἤδη τῷ θανάτῳ, ὡς καὶ ταῦτα τὰ ἰχθύδια μόνα ἐπικατάρατα ἐν τῷ βυθῷ νήχεται, μὴ κολυμβῶντα ὡς τὰ λοιπά, ἀλλ᾿ ἐν τῇ γῇ κάτω τοῦ βυθοῦ κατοικεῖ. And you shall not eat, says He, lamprey nor polypus nor cuttle fish. You shall not, He means, become like unto such men, who are desperately wicked, and are already condemned to death, just as these fishes alone are accursed and swim in the depths, not swimming on the surface like the rest, but dwell on the ground beneath the deep sea.
6 ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸν δασύποδα οὐ μὴ φάγῃ. πρὸς τί; οὐ μὴ γένῃ, φησίν, παιδοφθόρος οὐδὲ ὁμοιωθήσῃ τοῖς τοιούτοις, ὅτι λαγωὸς κατ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν πλεονεκτεῖ τὴν ἀφόδευσιν· ὅσα γὰρ ἔτη ζῇ, τοσαύτας ἔχει τρύπας. Moreover you shall not eat the hare. Why so? You shall not be found a corrupter of boys, nor shall you become like such persons; for the hare gains one passage in the body every year; for according to the number of years it lives it has just so many orifices.
7 ἀλλὰ οὐδὲ τὴν ὕαιναν φάγῃ· οὐ μή, φησίν, γένῃ μοιχὸς οὐδὲ φθορεὺς οὐδὲ ὁμοιωθήσῃ τοῖς τοιούτοις. πρὸς τί; ὅτι τὸ ζῷον τοῦτο παρ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν ἀλλάσσει τὴν φύσιν καὶ ποτὲ μὲν ἄρρεν, ποτὲ δὲ θῆλυ γίνεται. Again, neither shall you eat the hyena; you shall not, says He, become an adulterer or a fornicator, neither shall you resemble such persons. Why so? Because this animal changes its nature year by year, and becomes at one time male and at another female.
8 ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν γαλῆν ἐμίσησεν καλῶς. οὐ μή, φησίν, γενηθῇς τοιοῦτος, οἵους ἀκούομεν ἀνομίαν ποιοῦντας ἐν τῷ στόματι δι᾿ ἀκαθαρσίαν, οὐδὲ κολληθήσῃ ταῖς ἀκαθάρτοις ταῖς τὴν ἀνομίαν ποιούσαις ἐν τῷ στόματι. τὸ γὰρ ζῷον τοῦτο τῷ στόματι κύει. Moreover He has hated the weasel also and with good reason. You shall not, says He, become such as those men of whom we hear as working iniquity with their mouth for uncleanness, neither shall you cleave unto impure women who work iniquity with their mouth. For this animal conceives with its mouth.
9 Περὶ μὲν τῶν βρωμάτων λαβὼν Μωϋσῆς τρία δόγματα οὕτως ἐν πνεύματι ἐλάλησεν· οἱ δὲ κατ᾿ ἐπιθυμίαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὡς περὶ βρώσεως προσεδέξαντο. Concerning meats then Moses received three decrees to this effect and uttered them in a spiritual sense; but they accepted them according to the lust of the flesh, as though they referred to eating.
10 λαμβάνει δὲ τῶν αὐτῶν τριῶν δογμάτων γνῶσιν Δαυὶδ καὶ λέγει· μακάριος ἀνήρ, ὃς οὐκ ἐπορεύθη ἐν βουλῇ ἀσεβῶν, καθὼς καὶ οἱ ἰχθύες πορεύονται ἐν σκότει εἰς τὰ βάθη· καὶ ἐν ὁδῷ ἁμαρτωλῶν οὐκ ἔστη, καθὼς οἱ δοκοῦντες φοβεῖσθαι τὸν κύριον ἁμαρτάνουσιν ὡς χοῖρος, καὶ ἐπὶ καθέδραν λοιμῶν οὐκ ἐκάθισεν, καθὼς τὰ πετεινὰ καθήμενα εἰς ἁρπαγήν. ἔχετε τελείως καὶ περὶ τῆς βρώσεως. And David also receoves knowledge of the same three decrees, and says; Blessed is the man who has not gone in the council of the ungodly–even as the fishes go in darkness into the depths; and has not stood in the path of sinners–just as they who pretend to fear the Lord sin like swine; and has not sat on the seat of the destroyers–as the birds that are seated for prey. You have now the complete lesson concerning eating.
11 Πάλιν λέγει Μωϋσῆς· Φάγεσθε πᾶν διχηλοῦν καὶ μαρυκώμενον. τί λέγει; ὅτι τὴν τροφὴν λαμβάνων οἶδεν τὸν τρέφοντα αὐτὸν καὶ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ ἀναπαυόμενος εὐφραίνεσθαι δοκεῖ. καλῶς εἶπεν βλέπων τὴν ἐντολήν. τί οὖν λέγει; κολλᾶσθε μετὰ τῶν φοβουμένων τὸν κύριον, μετὰ τῶν μελετώντων ἔλαβον διάσταλμα ῥήματος ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ, μετὰ τῶν λαλούντων τὰ δικαιώματα κυρίου καὶ τηρούντων, μετὰ τῶν εἰδότων, ὅτι μελέτη ἐστὶν ἔργον εὐφροσύνης, καὶ ἀναμαρυκωμένων τὸν λόγον κυρίου. τί δὲ τὸ διχηλοῦν; ὅτι δίκαιος καὶ ἐν τούτῳ τῷ κόσμῳ περιπατεῖ καὶ τὸν ἅγιον αἰῶνα ἐκδέχεται. βλέπετε, πῶς ἐνομοθέτησεν Μωϋσῆς καλῶς. Again Moses says; You shall everything that divides the hoof and chews the cud. What means he? He that receoves the food knows Him that gives him the food, and being refreshed appears to rejoice in him. Well said he, having regard to the commandment. What then means he? Cleave unto those that fear the Lord, with those who meditate in their heart on the distinction of the word which they have received, with those who tell of the ordinances of the Lord and keep them, with those who know that meditation is a work of gladness and who chew the cud of the word of the Lord. But why that which divides the hoof? Because the righteous man both walks in this world, and at the same time looks for the holy world to come. You see how wise a lawgiver Moses was.
12 ἀλλὰ πόθεν ἐκείνοις ταῦτα νοῆσαι συνιέναι; ἡμεῖς δὲ δικαίως νοήσαντες τὰς ἐντολὰς[15] λαλοῦμεν, ὡς ἠθέλησεν κύριος. διὰ τοῦτο περιέτεμεν τὰς ἀκοὰς ἡμῶν καὶ τὰς καρδίας, ἵνα συνιῶμεν ταῦτα. But whence should they perceive or understand these things? Howbeit we having justly perceived the commandments tell them as the Lord willed. To this end He circumcised our ears and hearts, that we might understand these things.

Chapter 11

Lessons about baptism

1 Ζητήσωμεν δέ, εἰ ἐμέλησεν τῷ κυρίῳ προφανερῶσαι περὶ τοῦ ὕδατος καὶ περὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ. περὶ μὲν τοῦ ὕδατος γέγραπται ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραήλ. πῶς τὸ βάπτισμα τὸ φέρον ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν οὐ μὴ προσδέξονται, ἀλλ᾿ ἑαυτοῖς οἰκοδομήσουσιν. But let us inquire whether the Lord took care to signify before hand concerning the water and the cross. Now concerning the water it is written in reference to Israel, how that they would not receive the baptism which brings remission of sins, but would build for themselves.
2 λέγει γὰρ προφήτης· Ἔκστηθι οὐρανέ, καὶ ἐπὶ τούτῳ πλεῖον φριξάτω γῆ, ὅτι δύο καὶ πονηρὰ ἐποίησεν λαὸς οὗτος· ἐμὲ ἐγκατέλιπον, πηγὴν ζωῆς, καὶ ἑαυτοῖς ὤρυξαν βόθρον θανάτου. For the prophet says; Be astonished, O heaven, and let the earth shudder the more at this, for this people has done two evil things; they abandoned Me the fountain of life, and they dug for themselves a pit of death.
3 μὴ πέτρα ἔρημός ἐστιν τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου Σινᾶ; ἔσεσθε γὰρ ὡς πετεινοῦ νοσσοὶ ἀνιπτάμενοι νοσσιᾶς ἀφῃρημένοι. Is My holy mountain of Sinai a desert rock? for you shall be as the fledglings of a bird, which flutter aloft when deprived of their nest.
4 καὶ πάλιν λέγει προφήτης· ἐγὼ πορεύσομαι ἔμπροσθέν σου καὶ ὄρη ὁμαλιῶ καὶ πύλας χαλκᾶς συντρίψω καὶ μοχλοὺς σιδηροῦς συγκλάσω, καὶ δώσω σοί θησαυροὺς σκοτεινούς, ἀποκρύφους, ἀοράτους, ἵνα γνῶσιν ὅτι ἐγὼ κύριος θεὸς. And again the prophet says; I will go before you, and level mountains and crush gates of brass and break in pieces bolts of iron, and I will give you treasures dark, concealed, unseen, that they may know that I am the Lord God.
5 καί· κατοικήσεις ἐν ὑψηλῷ σπηλαίῳ πέτρας ἰσχυρᾶς. καί· τὸ ὕδωρ αὐτοῦ πιστόν· βασιλέα μετὰ δόξης ὄψεσθε, καὶ ψυχὴ ὑμῶν μελετήσει φόβον κυρίου. And; You shall dwell in a lofty cave of a strong rock. And; His water shall be sure; you shall see the King in glory, and your soul shall meditate on the fear of the Lord.
6 καὶ πάλιν ἐν ἄλλῳ προφήτῃ λέγει· Καὶ ἔσται ταῦτα ποιῶν ὡς τὸ ξύλον τὸ πεφυτευμένον παρὰ τὰς διεξόδους τῶν ὑδάτων, τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ δώσει ἐν καιρῷ αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὸ φύλλον αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἀπορυήσεται, καὶ πάντα, ὅσα ἄν ποιῇ, κατευοδωθήσεται. And again He says in another prophet; And He that does these things shall be as the tree that is planted by the parting streams of waters, which shall yield his fruit at his proper season, and his leaf shall not fall off, and all things whatsoever he does shall prosper.
7 οὐχ οὕτως οἱ ἀσεβεῖς, οὐχ οὕτως, ἀλλ᾿ ὡς χνοῦς, ὃν ἐκρίπτει ἄνεμος ἀπὸ προσώπου τῆς γῆς. διὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἀναστήσονται ἀσεβεῖς ἐν κρίσει οὐδὲ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἐν βουλῇ δικαίων, ὅτι γινώσκει κύριος ὁδὸν δικαίων, καὶ ὁδὸς ἀσεβῶν ἀπολεῖται. Not so are the ungodly, not so, but are as the dust which the wind scatters from the face of the earth. Therefore ungodly men shall not stand in judgment, neither sinners in the council of the righteous; for the Lord knows the way of the righteous, and the way of the ungodly shall perish.
8 αἰσθάνεσθε, πῶς τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ τὸν σταυρὸν ἐπὶ[16] τὸ αὐτὸ ὥρισεν. τοῦτο γὰρ λέγει· μακάριοι, οἳ ἐπὶ τὸν σταυρὸν ἐλπίσαντες κατέβησαν εἰς τὸ ὕδωρ, ὅτι τὸν μὲν μισθὸν λέγει ἐν καιρῷ αὐτοῦ· τότε, φησίν ἀποδώσω. νῦν δὲ λέγει· τὰ φύλλα οὐκ ἀπορυήσεται, τοῦτο λέγει· ὅτι πᾶν ῥῆμα, ἐὰν ἐξελεύσεται ἐξ ὑμῶν διὰ τοῦ στόματος ὑμῶν ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀγάπῃ, ἔσται εἰς ἐπιστροφὴν καὶ ἐλπίδα πολλοῖς. You perceive how He pointed out the water and the cross at the same time. For this is the meaning; Blessed are they who set their hope on the cross, and go down into the water; for He speaks of the reward at his proper season; then, says He, I will repay. But now what says He? His leaves shall not fall off; He means by this that every word, which shall come forth from you through your mouth in faith and love, shall be for the conversion and hope of many.
9 καὶ πάλιν ἕτερος προφήτης λέγει. Καὶ ἦν γῆ τοῦ Ἰακὼβ ἐπαινουμένη παρὰ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν. τοῦτο λέγει· τὸ σκεῦος τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ δοξάζει. And again another prophet says; And the land of Jacob was praised above the whole earth. He means this; He glorifies the vessel of His Spirit.
10 εἶτα τί λέγει; Καὶ ἦν ποταμὸς ἕλκων ἐκ δεξιῶν, καὶ ἀνέβαινεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ δένδρα ὡραῖα· καὶ ὃς ἄν φάγῃ ἐξ αὐτῶν, ζήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. Next what says He? And there was a river streaming from the right hand, and beautiful trees rose up from it; and whosoever shall eat of them shall live forever.
11 τοῦτο λέγει ὅτι ἡμεῖς μὲν καταβαίνομεν εἰς τὸ ὕδωρ γέμοντες ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ ῥύπου, καὶ ἀναβαίνομεν καρποφοροῦντες ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ [καὶ] τὸν φόβον καὶ τὴν ἐλπίδα εἰς τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἔχοντες. Καὶ ὃς ἄν φάγῃ ἀπὸ τούτων, ζήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, τοῦτο λέγει· ὃς ἄν, φησίν, ἀκούσῃ τούτων λαλουμένων καὶ πιστεύσῃ, ζήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. This He says, because we go down into the water laden with sins and filth, and rise up from it bearing fruit in the heart, resting our fear and hope on Jesus in the spirit. And whosoever shall eat of these shall live forever; He means this; whosoever, says He, shall hear these things spoken and shall believe, shall live forever.

Chapter 12

Lessons about the cross

1 Ὁμοίως πάλιν περὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ ὁρίζει ἐν ἄλλῳ προφήτῃ λέγοντι· Καὶ πότε ταῦτα συντελεσθήσεται; λέγει κύριος· ὅταν ξύλον κλιθῇ καὶ ἀναστῇ, καὶ ὅταν ἐκ ξύλου αἷμα στάξῃ. ἔχεις πάλιν περὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ καὶ τοῦ σταυροῦσθαι μέλλοντος. In like manner again He defines concerning the cross in another prophet, who says; And when shall these things be accomplished? says the Lord. Whenever a tree shall be bended and stand upright, and whensoever blood shall drop from a tree. Again you are taught concerning the cross, and Him that was to be crucified.
2 λέγει δὲ πάλιν τῷ Μωϋσῇ, πολεμουμένου τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων, καὶ ἵνα ὑπομνήσῃ αὐτοὺς πολεμουμένους, ὅτι διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν παρεδόθησαν εἰς θάνατον· λέγει εἰς τὴν καρδίαν Μωϋσέως τὸ πνεῦμα, ἵνα ποιήσῃ τύπον σταυροῦ καὶ τοῦ μέλλοντος πάσχειν, ὅτι, ἐὰν μή, φησίν, ἐλπίσωσιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα πολεμηθήσονται. τίθησιν οὖν Μωϋσῆς ἓν ἐφ᾿ ἓν ὅπλον ἐν μέσῳ τῆς πυγμῆς, καὶ ὑψηλότερος σταθεὶς πάντων ἐξέτεινεν τὰς χεῖρας, καὶ οὕτως πάλιν ἐνίκα Ἰσραήλ. εἶτα, ὁπόταν καθεῖλεν, ἐθανατοῦντο. And He says again in Moses, when war was waged against Israel by men of another nation, and that He might remind them when the war was waged against them that for their sins they were delivered unto death; the Spirit says to the heart of Moses, that he should make a type of the cross and of Him that was to suffer, that unless, says He, they shall set their hope on Him, war shall be waged against them for ever. Moses therefore piles arms one upon another in the midst of the encounter, and standing on higher ground than any he stretched out his hands, and so Israel was again victorious. Then, whenever he lowered them, they were slain with the sword.
3 πρὸς τί; ἵνα γνῶσιν ὅτι οὐ δύνανται σωθῆναι, ἐὰν μὴ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ ἐλπίσωσιν. Why was this? That they might learn that they cannot be saved, unless they should set their hope on Him.
4 καὶ πάλιν ἐν ἑτέρῳ προφήτῃ λέγει· ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν ἐξεπέτασα τὰς χεῖράς μου πρὸς λαὸν ἀπειθῆ καὶ ἀντιλέγοντα ὁδῷ δικαίᾳ μου. And again in another prophet He says; The whole day long have I stretched out My hands to a disobedient people that did gainsay My righteous way.
5 πάλιν Μωϋσῆς ποιεῖ τύπον τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν παθεῖν, καὶ αὐτὸς ζωοποιήσει, ὃν δόξουσιν ἀπολωλεκέναι, ἐν σημείῳ πίπτοντος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, ἐποίησεν γὰρ κύριος πάντα ὄφιν δάκνειν αὐτούς, καὶ ἀπέθνησκον (ἐπειδὴ παράβασις διὰ τοῦ ὄφεως ἐν Εὔᾳ ἐγένετο), ἵνα ἐλέγξῃ αὐτούς, ὅτι διὰ τὴν παράβασιν αὐτῶν εἰς θλῖψιν θανάτου παραδοθήσονται. Again Moses makes a type of Jesus, how that He must suffer, and that He Himself whom they shall think to have destroyed shall make alive in an emblem when Israel was falling. For the Lord caused all manner of serpents to bite them, and they died (forasmuch as the transgression was wrought in Eve through the serpent), that He might convince them that by reason of their transgression they should be delivered over to the affliction of death.
6 πέρας γέ τοι αὐτὸς Μωϋσῆς ἐντειλάμενος· Οὐκ ἔσται ὑμῖν οὔτε χωνευτὸν οὔτε γλυπτὸν εἰς θεὸν ὑμῖν, αὐτὸς ποιεῖ, ἵνα τύπον τοῦ Ἰησοῦ δείξῃ. ποιεῖ οὖν Μωϋσῆς χαλκοῦν ὄφιν καὶ τίθησιν ἐνδόξως, καὶ κηρύγματι καλεῖ τὸν λαόν. Yes and further though Moses gave the commandment; You shall not have a molten or a carved image for your God, yet he himself made one that he might show them a type of Jesus. So Moses makes a brazen serpent, and sets it up conspicuously, and summons the people by proclamation.
7 ἐλθόντες οὖν ἐπὶ[17] τὸ αὐτὸ ἐδέοντο Μωϋσέως, ἵνα περὶ αὐτῶν ἀνενέγκῃ δέησιν περὶ τῆς ἰάσεως αὐτῶν. εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς Μωϋσῆς· ὅταν, φησίν δηχθῇ τις ὑμῶν, ἐλθέτω ἐπὶ τὸν ὄφιν τὸν ἐπὶ τοῦ ξύλου ἐπικείμενον καὶ ἐλπισάτω πιστεύσας, ὅτι αὐτὸς ὢν νεκρός δύναται ζῳοποιῆσαι, καὶ παραχρῆμα σωθήσεται. καὶ οὕτως ἐποίουν. ἔχεις πάλιν καὶ ἐν τούτοις τὴν δόξαν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ πάντα καὶ εἰς αὐτόν. When therefore they were assembled together they entreated Moses that he should offer up intercession for them that they might be healed. And Moses said unto them; Whensoever, said he, one of you shall be bitten, let him come to the serpent which is placed on the tree, and let him believe and hope that the serpent being himself dead can make alive; and forthwith he shall be saved. And so they did. Here again you have in these things also the glory of Jesus, how that in Him and unto Him are all things.
8 Τί λέγει πάλιν Μωϋσῆς Ἰησοῦ, υἱῷ Ναυή, ἐπιθεὶς αὐτῷ τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα, ὄντι προφήτῃ, ἵνα μόνον ἀκούσῃ πᾶς λαὸς ὅτι πατὴρ πάντα φανεροῖ περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ Ἰησοῦ; What again says Moses unto Jesus (Joshua) the son of Nun, when he gives him this name, as being a prophet, that all the people might give ear to him alone, because the Father reveals all things concerning His Son Jesus?
9 λέγει οὖν Μωϋσῆς Ἰησοῦ, υἱῷ Ναυή, ἐπιθεὶς τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα, ὁπότε ἔπεμψεν αὐτὸν κατάσκοπον τῆς γῆς· Λάβε βιβλίον εἰς τὰς χεῖράς σου καὶ γράψον, λέγει κύριος, ὅτι ἐκκόψει ἐκ ῥιζῶν τὸν οἶκον πάντα τοῦ Ἀμαλὴκ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπ᾿ ἐσχάτων τῶν ἡμερῶν. Moses therefore says to Jesus the son of Nun, giving him this name, when he sent him as a spy on the land; Take a book in your hands, and write what the Lord says, how the Son of God shall cut up by the roots all the house of Amalek in the last days.
10 ἴδε πάλιν Ἰησοῦς, οὐχὶ υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου, ἀλλὰ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, τύπῳ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ φανερωθείς. Behold again it is Jesus, not a son of man, but the Son of God, and He was revealed in the flesh in a figure.
Ἐπεὶ οὖν μέλλουσιν λέγειν, ὅτι Χριστὸς[18] υἱὸς Δαυὶδ ἐστιν, αὐτὸς προφητεύει Δαυίδ, φοβούμενος καὶ συνίων τὴν πλάνην τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν· εἶπεν κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ μου· Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, ἕως ἄν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου. Since then men will say that Christ is the son of David, David himself prophesies being afraid and understanding the error of sinners; The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit you on My right hand until I set your enemies for a footstool under Your feet.
11 καὶ πάλιν λέγει οὕτως Ἡσαΐας· εἶπεν κύριος τῷ Χριστῷ μου κυρίῳ, οὗ ἐκράτησα τῆς δεξιᾶς αὐτοῦ, ἐπακοῦσαι ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ ἔθνη, καὶ ἰσχὺν βασιλέων διαρρήξω. ἴδε, πῶς Δαυὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν κύριον, καὶ υἱὸν οὐ λέγει. And again thus says Isaiah; The Lord said unto my Christ the Lord, of whose right hand I laid hold, that the nations should give ear before Him, and I will break down the strength of kings. See how David calls Him Lord, and calls Him not Son.

Chapter 13

Lessons about the covenant

1 Ἴδωμεν δὲ εἰ οὗτος λαὸς κληρονομεῖ πρῶτος, καὶ εἰ διαθήκη εἰς ἡμᾶς εἰς ἐκείνους. Now let us see whether this people or the first people has the inheritance, and whether the covenant had reference to us or to them.
2 ἀκούσατε οὖν περὶ τοῦ λαοῦ τί λέγει γραφή· Ἐδεῖτο δὲ Ἰσαὰκ περὶ Ῥεβέκκας τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ, ὅτι στεῖρα ἦν· καὶ συνέλαβεν. εἶτα ἐξῆλθεν Ῥεβέκκα πυθέσθαι παρὰ κυρίου, καὶ εἶπεν κύριος πρὸς αὐτήν· Δύο ἔθνη ἐν τῇ γαστρί σου καὶ δύο λαοὶ ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ σου, καὶ ὑπερέξει λαὸς λαοῦ καὶ μείζων δουλεύσει τῷ ἐλάσσονι. Hear then what the scripture says concerning the people; And Isaac prayed concerning Rebecca his wife, for she was barren. And she conceived. Then Rebecca went out to inquire of the Lord. And the Lord said unto her; Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples in your belly, and one people shall vanquish another people, and the greater shall serve the less.
3 αἰσθάνεσθαι ὀφείλετε, τίς Ἰσαὰκ καὶ τίς Ῥεβέκκα, καὶ ἐπὶ τίνων δέδειχεν, ὅτι μείζων λαὸς οὗτος ἐκεῖνος. You ought to understand who Isaac is, and who Rebecca is, and in whose case He has shown that the one people is greater than the other.
4 καὶ ἐν ἄλλῃ προφητείᾳ λέγει φανερώτερον Ἰακὼβ πρὸς Ἰωσὴφ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, λέγων· ἰδού, οὐκ ἐστέρησέν με κύριος τοῦ προσώπου σου· προσάγαγέ μοι τοὺς υἱούς σου, ἵνα εὐλογήσω αὐτούς. And in another prophecy Jacob speaks more plainly to Joseph his son, saying; Behold, the Lord has not bereft me of your face; bring me your sons, that I may bless them.
5 καὶ προσήγαγεν Ἐφραὶμ καὶ Μανασσῆ, τὸν Μανασσῆ θέλων ἵνα εὐλογηθῇ, ὅτι πρεσβύτερος ἦν· γὰρ Ἰωσὴφ προσήγαγεν εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν χεῖρα τοῦ πατρὸς Ἰακώβ. εἶδεν δὲ Ἰακὼβ τύπον τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ λαοῦ τοῦ μεταξύ· καὶ τί λέγει; Καὶ ἐποίησεν Ἰακὼβ ἐναλλὰξ τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐπέθηκεν τὴν δεξιὰν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἐφραίμ, τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ νεωτέρου, καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτόν. καὶ εἶπεν Ἰωσὴφ πρὸς Ἰακώβ· Μετάθες σου τὴν δεξιὰν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν Μανασσῆ, ὅτι πρωτότοκός μου υἱός ἐστιν. καὶ εἶπεν Ἰακὼβ πρὸς Ἰωσήφ· Οἶδα, τέκνον, οἶδα· ἀλλ᾿ μείζων δουλεύσει τῷ ἐλάσσονι, καὶ οὗτος δὲ εὐλογηθήσεται. And he brought Ephraim and Manasseh, desiring that Manasseh should be blessed, because he was the elder; for Joseph led him by the right hand of his father Jacob. But Jacob saw in the spirit a type of the people that should come afterwards. And what says He? And Jacob crossed his hands, and placed his right hand on the head of Ephraim, the second and younger, and blessed him. And Joseph said unto Jacob, Transfer your right hand to the head of Manasseh, for he is my first born son. And Jacob said to Joseph, I know it, my son, I know it; but the greater shall serve the less. Yet this one also shall be blessed.
6 βλέπετε, ἐπὶ τίνων τέθεικεν, τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον εἶναι πρῶτον καὶ τῆς διαθήκης κληρονόμον. Mark in whose cases He ordained that this people should be first and heir of the covenant.
7 Εἰ οὖν ἔτι καὶ διὰ τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ ἐμνήσθη, ἀπέχομεν τὸ τέλειον τῆς γνώσεως ἡμῶν. τί οὖν λέγει τῷ Ἀβραάμ, ὅτε μόνος πιστεύσας ἐτέθη εἰς δικαιοσύνην; ἰδού, τέθεικά σε, Ἀβραάμ, πατέρα ἐθνῶν τῶν πιστευόντων δι᾿ ἀκροβυστίας τῷ θεῷ. If then besides this He also recorded it through Abraham, we attain the completion of our knowledge. What then says he to Abraham when he alone believed, and was ascribed for righteousness? Behold I have made you, Abraham, a father of nations that believe in God in uncircumcision.

Chapter 14

1 Ναί. ἀλλὰ ἴδωμεν, εἰ διαθήκη, ἣν ὤμοσεν τοῖς πατράσιν δοῦναι τῷ λαῷ, εἰ δέδωκεν. δέδωκεν· αὐτοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἐγένοντο ἄξιοι λαβεῖν διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν. Yes verily, but as regards the covenant which He swear to the fathers to give it to the people let us see whether He has actually given it. He has given it, but they themselves were not found worthy to receive it by reason of their sins.
2 λέγει γὰρ προφήτης· Καὶ ἦν Μωϋσῆς νηστεύων ἐν ὄρει Σινᾶ, τοῦ λαβεῖν τὴν διαθήκην κυρίου πρὸς τὸν λαόν, ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσεράκοντα. καὶ ἔλαβεν Μωϋσῆς παρὰ κυρίου τὰς δύο πλάκας τὰς γεγραμμένας τῷ δακτύλῳ τῆς χειρὸς κυρίου ἐν πνεύματι· καὶ λαβὼν Μωϋσῆς κατέφερεν πρὸς τὸν λαὸν δοῦναι. For the prophet says; And Moses was fasting in Mount Sinai forty days and forty nights, that he might receive the covenant of the Lord to give to the people. And [Moses] received from the Lord the two tables which were written by the finger of the hand of the Lord in the spirit. And Moses took them, and brought them down to give them to the people.
3 καὶ εἶπεν κύριος πρὸς Μωϋσῆν· Μωϋσῆ Μωϋσῆ, κατάβηθι τὸ τάχος, ὅτι λαός σου, ὃν ἐξήγαγες ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, ἠνόμησεν. καὶ συνῆκεν Μωϋσῆς, ὅτι ἐποίησαν ἑαυτοῖς πάλιν χωνεύματα, καὶ ἔρριψεν ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν, καὶ συνετρίβησαν αἱ πλάκες τῆς διαθήκης κυρίου. And the Lord said unto Moses; Moses, Moses, come down quickly; for your people, whom you led forth from the land of Egypt, has done wickedly. And Moses perceived that they had made for themselves again molten images, and he cast them out of his hands and the tables of the covenant of the Lord were broken in pieces.
4 Μωϋσῆς μὲν ἔλαβεν, αὐτοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἐγένοντο ἄξιοι. Moses received them, but they themselves were not found worthy.
Πῶς δὲ ἡμεῖς ἐλάβομεν, μάθετε. Μωϋσῆς θεράπων ὢν ἔλαβεν, αὐτὸς δὲ κύριος ἡμῖν ἔδωκεν εἰς λαὸν κληρονομίας, δι᾿ ἡμᾶς ὑπομείνας. But how did we receive them? Mark this. Moses received them being a servant, but the Lord himself gave them to us to be the people of His inheritance, having endured patiently for our sakes.
5 ἐφανερώθη δέ, ἵνα κἀκεῖνοι τελειωθῶσιν τοῖς ἁμαρτήμασιν, καὶ ἡμεῖς διὰ τοῦ κληρονομοῦντος διαθήκην κυρίου Ἰησοῦ λάβωμεν, ὃς εἰς τοῦτο ἡτοιμάσθη, ἵνα αὐτὸς φανείς, τὰς ἤδη δεδαπανημένας ἡμῶν καρδίας τῷ θανάτῳ καὶ παραδεδομένας τῇ τῆς πλάνης ἀνομίᾳ λυτρωσάμενος ἐκ τοῦ σκότους, διάθηται ἐν ἡμῖν διαθήκην λόγῳ. But He was made manifest, in order that at the same time they might be perfected in their sins, and we might receive the covenant through Him who inherited it, even the Lord Jesus, who was prepared beforehand hereunto, that appearing in person He might redeem out of darkness our hearts which had already been paid over unto death and delivered up to the iniquity of error, and thus establish the covenant in us through the word.
6 γέγραπται γάρ, πῶς αὐτῷ πατὴρ ἐντέλλεται, λυτρωσάμενον ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ σκότους ἑτοιμάσαι ἑαυτῷ λαὸν ἅγιον. For it is written how the Father charges Him to deliver us from darkness, and to prepare a holy people for Himself.
7 λέγει οὖν προφήτης· ἐγὼ κύριος, θεός σου, ἐκάλεσά σὲ ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ κρατήσω τῆς χειρός σου καὶ ἐνισχύσω σε, καὶ ἔδωκά σὲ εἰς διαθήκην γένους, εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν ἀνοῖξαι ὀφθαλμοὺς τυφλῶν καὶ ἐξαγαγεῖν ἐκ δεσμῶν πεπεδημένους καὶ ἐξ οἴκου φυλακῆς καθημένους ἐν σκότει. γινώσκομεν οὖν, πόθεν ἐλυτρώθημεν. Therefore says the prophet; I the Lord your God called you in righteousness, and I will lay hold of your hand and will strengthen you, and I have given you to be a covenant of the race, a light to the Gentiles, to open the eyes of the blind, and to bring forth them who are bound from their fetters, and them who sit in darkness from their prison house. We perceive then whence we were ransomed.
8 πάλιν προφήτης λέγει· ἰδού, τέθεικά σὲ εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν, τοῦ εἶναί σὲ εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς, οὕτως λέγει κύριος λυτρωσάμενός σὲ θεός. Again the prophet says; Behold I have set You to be a light unto the Gentiles, that You should be for salvation unto the ends of the earth; thus says the Lord who ransomed you, even God.
9 καὶ πάλιν προφήτης λέγει· πνεῦμα κυρίου ἐπ᾿ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι ταπεινοῖς χάριν, ἀπέσταλκέν με ἰάσασθαι τοὺς συντετριμμένους τὴν καρδίαν, κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, καλέσαι ἐνιαυτὸν κυρίου δεκτὸν καὶ ἡμέραν ἀνταποδόσεως, παρακαλέσαι πάντας τοὺς πενθοῦντας. Again the prophet says; The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, why He anointed Me to preach good tidings to the humble; He has sent Me to heal them who are broken-hearted, to preach release to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord and the day of recompense, to comfort all who mourn.

Chapter 15

Lessons about the sabbath

1 Ἔτι οὖν καὶ περὶ τοῦ σαββάτου γέγραπται ἐν τοῖς δέκα λόγοις, ἐν οἷς ἐλάλησεν ἐν τῷ ὄρει Σινᾶ πρὸς Μωϋσῆν κατὰ πρόσωπον· Καὶ ἁγιάσατε τὸ σάββατον κυρίου χερσὶν καθαραῖς καὶ καρδίᾳ καθαρᾷ. Moreover concerning the Sabbath likewise it is written in the Ten Words, in which He spoke to Moses face to face on Mount Sinai; And you shall hallow the Sabbath of the Lord with pure hands and with a pure heart.
2 καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει· ἐὰν φυλάξωσιν οἱ υἱοί μου τὸ σάββατον, τότε ἐπιθήσω τὸ ἔλεός μου ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς. And in another place He says; If my sons observe the Sabbath then I will bestow My mercy upon them.
3 τὸ σάββατον λέγει ἐν ἀρχῇ τῆς κτίσεως· Καὶ ἐποίησεν θεὸς ἐν ἓξ ἡμέραις τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ, καὶ συνετέλεσεν ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἑβδόμῃ καὶ κατέπαυσεν ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ ἡγίασεν αὐτήν. Of the Sabbath He speaks in the beginning of the creation; And God made the works of His hands in six days, and He ended on the seventh day, and rested on it, and He hallowed it.
4 προσέχετε, τέκνα, τί λέγει τὸ συνετέλεσεν ἐν ἓξ ἡμέραις. τοῦτο λέγει, ὅτι ἐν ἑξακισχιλίοις ἔτεσιν συντελέσει κύριος τὰ σύμπαντα· γὰρ ἡμέρα παρ᾿ αὐτῷ σημαίνει χίλια ἔτη. αὐτὸς δέ μοι μαρτυρεῖ λέγων· ἰδού, ἡμέρα κυρίου ἔσται ὡς χίλια ἔτη. οὐκοῦν, τέκνα, ἐν ἓξ ἡμέραις, ἐν τοῖς ἑξακισχιλίοις ἔτεσιν συντελεσθήσεται τὰ σύμπαντα. Give heed, children, what this means; He ended in six days. He means this, that in six thousand years the Lord shall bring all things to an end; for the day with Him signifies a thousand years; and this He himself bears me witness, saying; Behold, the day of the Lord shall be as a thousand years. Therefore, children, in six days, that is in six thousand years, everything shall come to an end.
5 Καὶ κατέπαυσεν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἑβδόμῃ. τοῦτο λέγει· ὅταν ἐλθὼν υἱὸς αὐτοῦ καταργήσει τὸν καιρὸν τοῦ ἀνόμου καὶ κρινεῖ τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς καὶ ἀλλάξει τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας, τότε καλῶς καταπαύσεται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἑβδόμῃ. And He rested on the seventh day. this He means; when His Son shall come, and shall abolish the time of the Lawless One, and shall judge the ungodly, and shall change the sun and the moon and the stars, then shall he truly rest on the seventh day.
6 πέρας γέ τοι λέγει· Ἁγιάσεις αὐτὴν χερσὶν καθαραῖς καὶ καρδίᾳ καθαρᾷ. εἰ οὖν ἣν θεὸς ἡμέραν ἡγίασεν νῦν τις δύναται ἁγιάσαι καθαρὸς ὢν τῇ καρδίᾳ, ἐν πᾶσιν πεπλανήμεθα. Yes and furthermore He says; You shall hallow it with pure hands and with a pure heart. If therefore a man is able now to hallow the day which God hallowed, though he be pure in heart, we have gone utterly astray.
7 ἴδε ὅτι ἄρα τότε καλῶς καταπαυόμενοι ἁγιάσομεν αὐτήν, ὅτε δυνησόμεθα αὐτοὶ δικαιωθέντες καὶ ἀπολαβόντες τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν, μηκέτι οὔσης τῆς ἀνομίας, καινῶν δὲ γεγονότων πάντων ὑπὸ κυρίου· τότε δυνησόμεθα αὐτὴν ἁγιάσαι, αὐτοὶ ἁγιασθέντες πρῶτον. But if after all then and not till then shall we truly rest and hallow it, when we shall ourselves be able to do so after being justified and receiving the promise, when iniquity is no more and all things have been made new by the Lord, we shall be able to hallow it then, because we ourselves shall have been hallowed first.
8 πέρας γέ τοι λέγει αὐτοῖς· τὰς νεομηνίας ὑμῶν καὶ τὰ σάββατα οὐκ ἀνέχομαι. ὁρᾶτε, πῶς λέγει; οὐ τὰ σάββατα ἐμοὶ δεκτά, ἀλλὰ πεποίηκα, ἐν καταπαύσας τὰ πάντα ἀρχὴν ἡμέρας ὀγδόης ποιήσω, ἐστιν ἄλλου κόσμου ἀρχήν. Finally He says to them; Your new moons and your Sabbaths I cannot away with. You see what is His meaning ; it is not your present Sabbaths that are acceptable [unto Me], but the Sabbath which I have made, in the which, when I have set all things at rest, I will make the beginning of the eighth day which is the beginning of another world.
9 διὸ καὶ ἄγομεν τὴν ἡμέραν τὴν ὀγδόην εἰς εὐφροσύνην, ἐν καὶ Ἰησοῦς ἀνέστη ἐκ νεκρῶν καὶ φανερωθεὶς ἀνέβη εἰς οὐρανούς. Why also we keep the eighth day for rejoicing, in the which also Jesus rose from the dead, and having been manifested ascended into the heavens.

Chapter 16

Lessons about the temple

1 Ἔτι δὲ καὶ περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ ἐρῶ ὑμῖν, ὡς πλανώμενοι οἱ ταλαίπωροι εἰς τὴν οἰκοδομὴν ἤλπισαν, καὶ οὐκ ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν αὐτῶν τὸν ποιήσαντα αὐτούς, ὡς ὄντα οἶκον θεοῦ. Moreover I will tell you likewise concerning the temple, how these wretched men being led astray set their hope on the building, and not on their God that made them, as being a house of God.
2 σχεδὸν γὰρ ὡς τὰ ἔθνη ἀφιέρωσαν αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ναῷ. ἀλλὰ πῶς λέγει κύριος καταργῶν αὐτόν, μάθετε· Τίς ἐμέτρησεν τὸν οὐρανὸν σπιθαμῇ τὴν γῆν δρακί; οὐκ ἐγώ; λέγει κύριος· οὐρανός μοι θρόνος, δὲ γῆ ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν μου· ποῖον οἶκον οἰκοδομήσετέ μοι, τίς τόπος τῆς καταπαύσεώς μου; ἐγνώκατε, ὅτι ματαία ἐλπὶς αὐτῶν. For like the Gentiles almost they consecrated Him in the temple. But what says the Lord abolishing the temple? Learn. Who has measured the heaven with a span, or has measured the earth with his hand? Have not I, says the Lord? The heaven is My throne and the earth the footstool of My feet. What manner of house will you build for Me? Or what shall be my resting place? You perceive that their hope is vain.
3 πέρας γέ τοι πάλιν λέγει· ἰδού, οἱ καθελόντες τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον αὐτοὶ αὐτὸν οἰκοδομήσουσιν. Furthermore He says again; Behold they who pulled down this temple themselves shall build it.
4 γίνεται. διὰ γὰρ τὸ πολεμεῖν αὐτοὺς καθῃρέθη ὑπὸ τῶν ἐχθρῶν· νῦν καὶ αὐτοὶ οἱ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ὑπηρέται ἀνοικοδομήσουσιν αὐτόν. So it comes to pass; for because they went to war it was pulled down by their enemies. Now also the very servants of their enemies shall build it up.
5 πάλιν ὡς ἔμελλεν πόλις καὶ ναὸς καὶ λαὸς Ἰσραὴλ παραδίδοσθαι, ἐφανερώθη. λέγει γὰρ γραφή· Καὶ ἔσται ἐπ᾿ ἐσχάτων τῶν ἡμερῶν, καὶ παραδώσει κύριος τὰ πρόβατα τῆς νομῆς καὶ τὴν μάνδραν καὶ τὸν πύργον αὐτῶν εἰς καταφθοράν. καὶ ἐγένετο καθ᾿ ἐλάλησεν κύριος. Again, it was revealed how the city and the temple and the people of Israel should be betrayed. For the scripture says; And it shall be in the last days, that the Lord shall deliver up the sheep of the pasture and the fold and the tower thereof to destruction. And it came to pass as the Lord spoke.
6 Ζητήσωμεν δέ, εἰ ἔστιν ναὸς θεοῦ. ἔστιν, ὅπου αὐτὸς λέγει ποιεῖν καὶ καταρτίζειν. γέγραπται γάρ· Καὶ ἔσται, τῆς ἑβδομάδος συντελουμένης οἰκοδομηθήσεται ναὸς θεοῦ ἐνδόξως ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι κυρίου. But let us inquire whether there be any temple of God. There is; in the place where he himself undertakes to make and finish it. For it is written And it shall come to pass, when the week is being accomplished, the temple of God shall be built gloriously in the name of the Lord.
7 εὑρίσκω οὖν, ὅτι ἔστιν ναός. πῶς οὖν οἰκοδομηθήσεται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι κυρίου, μάθετε. πρὸ τοῦ ἡμᾶς πιστεῦσαι τῷ θεῷ ἦν ἡμῶν τὸ κατοικητήριον τῆς καρδίας φθαρτὸν καὶ ἀσθενές, ὡς ἀληθῶς οἰκοδομητὸς ναὸς διὰ χειρός, ὅτι ἦν πλήρης μὲν εἰδωλολατρείας καὶ ἦν οἶκος δαιμονίων διὰ τὸ ποιεῖν, ὅσα ἦν ἐναντία τῷ θεῷ. I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God.
8 Οἰκοδομηθήσεται δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι κυρίου. προσέχετε δέ, ἵνα ναὸς τοῦ κυρίου ἐνδόξως οἰκοδομηθῇ. πῶς, μάθετε. λαβόντες τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ ἐλπίσαντες ἐπὶ τὸ ὄνομα ἐγενόμεθα καινοί, πάλιν ἐξ ἀρχῆς κτιζόμενοι· διὸ ἐν τῷ κατοικητηρίῳ ἡμῶν ἀληθῶς θεὸς κατοικεῖ ἐν ἡμῖν. But it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Give heed then that the temple of the Lord may be built gloriously. How? Understand. By receiving the remission of our sins and hoping on the Name we became new, created afresh from the beginning. Why God dwells truly in our habitation within us.
9 πῶς; λόγος αὐτοῦ τῆς πίστεως, κλῆσις αὐτοῦ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, σοφία τῶν δικαιωμάτων, αἱ ἐντολαὶ τῆς διδαχῆς, αὐτὸς ἐν ἡμῖν προφητεύων, αὐτὸς ἐν ἡμῖν κατοικῶν, τοὺς τῷ θανάτῳ δεδουλωμένους ἀνοίγων ἡμῖν τὴν θύραν τοῦ ναοῦ, ἐστιν στόμα, μετάνοιαν διδοὺς ἡμῖν, εἰσάγει εἰς τὸν ἄφθαρτον ναόν. How? The word of his faith, the calling of his promise, the wisdom of the ordinances, the commandments of the teaching, He Himself prophesying in us, He Himself dwelling in us, opening for us who had been in bondage unto death the door of the temple, which is the mouth, and giving us repentance leads us to the incorruptible temple.
10  γὰρ ποθῶν σωθῆναι βλέπει οὐκ εἰς τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ἀλλ᾿ εἰς τὸν ἐν αὐτῷ κατοικοῦντα καὶ λαλοῦντα, ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ ἐκπλησσόμενος, ἐπὶ τῷ μηδέποτε μήτε τοῦ λέγοντος τὰ ῥήματα ἀκηκοέναι ἐκ τοῦ στόματος μήτε αὐτός ποτε ἐπιτεθυμηκέναι ἀκούειν. τοῦτό ἐστιν πνευματικὸς ναὸς οἰκοδομούμενος τῷ κυρίῳ. For he who desires to be saved looks not to the man, but to Him who dwells and speaks in him, being amazed at this that he has never at any time heard these words from the mouth of the speaker, nor himself ever desired to hear them. This is the spiritual temple built up to the Lord.

Chapter 17

Conclusion

1 Ἐφ᾿ ὅσον ἦν ἐν δυνατῷ καὶ ἁπλότητι δηλῶσαι ὑμῖν, ἐλπίζει μου ψυχὴ τῇ ἐπιθυμίᾳ μου μὴ παραλελοιπέναι τι τῶν ἀνηκόντων εἰς σωτηρίαν. So far as it was possible with all simplicity to declare it unto you, my soul hopeth that I have not omitted anything [of the matters pertaining unto salvation and so failed in my desire].
2 ἐὰν γὰρ περὶ τῶν ἐνεστώτων μελλόντων γράφω ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ νοήσητε διὰ τὸ ἐν παραβολαῖς κεῖσθαι. ταῦτα μὲν οὕτως. For if I should write to you concerning things immediate or future, you would not understand them, because they are put in parables. So much then for this.

Chapter 18

The two ways

1 Μεταβῶμεν δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ ἑτέραν γνῶσιν καὶ διδαχήν. ὁδοὶ δύο εἰσὶν διδαχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας, τε τοῦ φωτὸς καὶ τοῦ σκότους. διαφορὰ δὲ πολλὴ τῶν δύο ὁδῶν. ἐφ᾿ ἧς μὲν γάρ εἰσιν τεταγμένοι φωταγωγοὶ ἄγγελοι τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐφ᾿ ἧς δὲ ἄγγελοι τοῦ σατανᾶ. But let us pass on to another lesson and teaching. There are two ways of teaching and of power, the one of light and the other of darkness; and there is a great difference between the two ways. For on the one are stationed the light giving angels of God, on the other the angels of Satan.
2 καὶ μέν ἐστιν κύριος ἀπὸ αἰώνων καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, δὲ ἄρχων καιροῦ τοῦ νῦν τῆς ἀνομίας. And the one is the Lord from all eternity and unto all eternity, whereas the other is Lord of the season of iniquity that now is.

Chapter 19

Way of light

1  οὖν ὁδὸς τοῦ φωτός ἐστιν αὕτη· ἐάν τις θέλων ὁδὸν ὁδεύειν ἐπὶ τὸν ὡρισμένον τόπον, σπεύσῃ τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτοῦ. ἔστιν οὖν δοθεῖσα ἡμῖν γνῶσις τοῦ περιπατεῖν ἐν αὐτῇ τοιαύτη. This then is the way of light, if anyone desiring to travel on the way to his appointed place would be zealous in his works. The knowledge then which is given to us whereby we may walk therein is as follows.
2 ἀγαπήσεις τὸν ποιήσαντά σε, φοβηθήσῃ τόν σὲ πλάσαντα, δοξάσεις τόν σὲ λυτρωσάμενον ἐκ θανάτου· ἔσῃ ἁπλοῦς τῇ καρδίᾳ καὶ πλούσιος τῷ πνεύματι· οὐ κολληθήσῃ μετὰ τῶν πορευομένων ἐν ὁδῷ θανάτου, μισήσεις πᾶν, οὐκ ἔστιν ἀρεστὸν τῷ θεῷ, μισήσεις πᾶσαν ὑπόκρισιν· οὐ μὴ ἐγκαταλίπῃς ἐντολὰς κυρίου. You shall love Him who made you, you shall fear Him who created you, you shall glorify Him who redeemed you from death; you shall be simple in heart and rich in spirit; you shall not cleave to those who walk the way of death; you shall hate everything that is not pleasing to God; you shall hate all hypocrisy; you shall never forsake the commandments of the Lord.
3 οὐχ ὑψώσεις σεαυτόν, ἔσῃ δὲ ταπεινόφρων κατὰ πάντα· οὐκ ἀρεῖς ἐπὶ σεαυτὸν δόξαν. οὐ λήμψῃ βουλὴν πονηρὰν κατὰ τοῦ πλησίον σου, οὐ δώσεις τῇ ψυχῇ σου θράσος. You shall not exalt yourself, but shall be lowly minded in all things. You shall not assume glory to yourself. You shall not entertain a wicked design against your neighbor; you shall not admit boldness into your soul.
4 οὐ πορνεύσεις, οὐ μοιχεύσεις, οὐ παιδοφθορήσεις. οὐ μή σου λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐξέλθῃ ἐν ἀκαθαρσίᾳ τινῶν. οὐ λήμψῃ πρόσωπον ἐλέγξαι τινὰ ἐπὶ παραπτώματι. ἔσῃ πραΰς, ἔσῃ ἡσύχιος, ἔσῃ τρέμων τοὺς λόγους οὓς ἤκουσας, οὐ μνησικακήσεις τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου. You shall not commit fornication, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not corrupt boys. The word of God shall not come forth from you where any are unclean. You shall not make a difference in a person to reprove him for a transgression. You shall be meek, you shall be quiet, you shall be fearing the words which you have heard. You shall not bear a grudge against your brother.
5 οὐ μὴ διψυχήσῃς, πότερον ἔσται οὔ. οὐ μὴ λάβῃς ἐπὶ ματαίῳ τὸ ὄνομα κυρίου. ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὑπὲρ τὴν ψυχήν σου. οὐ φονεύσεις τέκνον ἐν φθορᾷ, οὐδὲ πάλιν γεννηθὲν ἀποκτενεῖς. οὐ μὴ ἄρῃς τὴν χεῖρά σου ἀπὸ τοῦ υἱοῦ σου ἀπὸ τῆς θυγατρός σου, ἀλλὰ ἀπὸ νεότητος διδάξεις φόβον θεοῦ. You shall not doubt whether a thing shall be or not be. You shall not take the name of the Lord in vain. You shall love your neighbor more than your own soul. You shall not murder a child by abortion, nor again shall you kill it when it is born. You shall not withhold your hand from your son or daughter, but from their youth you shall teach them the fear of God.
6 οὐ μὴ γένῃ ἐπιθυμῶν τὰ τοῦ πλησίον σου, οὐ μὴ γένῃ πλεονέκτης. οὐδὲ κολληθήσῃ ἐκ ψυχῆς σου μετὰ ὑψηλῶν, ἀλλὰ μετὰ ταπεινῶν καὶ δικαίων ἀναστραφήσῃ, τὰ συμβαίνοντά σοί ἐνεργήματα ὡς ἀγαθὰ προσδέξῃ, εἰδώς ὅτι ἄνευ θεοῦ οὐδὲν γίνεται. You shall not be found coveting your neighbors goods; you shall not be found greedy of gain. Neither shall you cleave with your soul to the lofty, but shall walk with the humble and righteous. The accidents that befall you you shall receive as good, knowing that nothing is done without God. You shall not be double minded nor double tongued.
7 οὐκ ἔσῃ διγνώμων οὐδὲ γλωσσώδης, ὑποταγήσῃ κυρίοις ὡς τύπῳ θεοῦ ἐν αἰσχύνῃ καὶ φόβῳ· οὐ μὴ ἐπιτάξῃς δούλῳ σου παιδίσκῃ ἐν πικρίᾳ, τοῖς ἐπὶ τὸν αὐτὸν θεὸν ἐλπίζουσιν, μή ποτε οὐ μὴ φοβηθήσονται τὸν ἐπ᾿ ἀμφοτέροις θεόν· ὅτι οὐκ ἦλθεν κατὰ πρόσωπον καλέσαι, ἀλλ᾿ ἐφ᾿ οὓς τὸ πνεῦμα ἡτοίμασεν. You shall be subject unto your masters as to a type of God in shame and fear. You shall not command in bitterness your bondservant or your handmaid who set their hope on the same God, lest perhaps, they should cease to fear the God who is over both of you; for He came not to call with respect of persons, but to call those whom the Spirit has prepared.
8 κοινωνήσεις ἐν πᾶσιν τῷ πλησίον σου καὶ οὐκ ἐρεῖς ἴδια εἶναι· εἰ γὰρ ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ κοινωνοί ἐστε, πόσῳ μᾶλλον ἐν τοῖς φθαρτοῖς; οὐκ ἔσῃ πρόγλωσσος· παγὶς γὰρ τὸ στόμα θανάτου. ὅσον δύνασαι, ὑπὲρ τῆς ψυχῆς σου ἁγνεύσεις. You shall make your neighbor partake in all things, and shall not say that anything is your own. For if you are fellow partakers in that which is imperishable, how much rather shall you be in the things which are perishable. You shall not be hasty with your own tongue, for the mouth is the snare of death. So far as you are able, you shall be pure for your soul's sake.
9 μὴ γίνου πρὸς μὲν τὸ λαβεῖν ἐκτείνων τὰς χεῖρας, πρὸς δὲ τὸ δοῦναι συσπῶν. ἀγαπήσεις ὡς κόρην τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σου πάντα τὸν λαλοῦντά σοί τὸν λόγον κυρίου. Don't be found holding out your hands to receive, and drawing them in to give. You shall love as the apple of your eye every one that speaks unto you the word of the Lord.
10 μνησθήσῃ ἡμέραν κρίσεως νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας, καὶ ἐκζητήσεις καθ᾿ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν τὰ πρόσωπα τῶν ἁγίων, διὰ λόγου κοπιῶν καὶ πορευόμενος εἰς τὸ παρακαλέσαι καὶ μελετῶν εἰς τὸ σῶσαι ψυχὴν τῷ λόγῳ, διὰ τῶν χειρῶν σου ἐργάσῃ εἰς λύτρωσιν ἁμαρτιῶν σου. You shall remember the day of judgment night and day, and you shall seek out day by day the persons of the saints, either laboring by word and going to exhort them and meditating how you may save souls by your word, or you shall work with your hands for a ransom for your sins.
11 οὐ διστάσεις δοῦναι οὐδὲ διδοὺς γογγύσεις· γνώσῃ δέ, τίς τοῦ μισθοῦ καλὸς ἀνταποδότης. φυλάξεις παρέλαβες, μήτε προστιθεὶς μήτε ἀφαιρῶν. εἰς τέλος μισήσεις τὸ πονηρόν. κρινεῖς δικαίως. You shall not hesitate to give, neither shall you murmur when giving, but you shall know who is the good paymaster of your reward. You shall keep those things which you have received, neither adding to them nor taking away from them. You shall utterly hate the Evil One. You shall judge righteously.
12 οὐ ποιήσεις σχίσμα, εἰρηνεύσεις δὲ μαχομένους συναγαγών. ἐξομολογήσῃ ἐπὶ ἁμαρτίαις σου. οὐ προσήξεις ἐπὶ προσευχὴν ἐν συνειδήσει πονηρᾷ. αὕτη ἐστὶν ὁδὸς τοῦ φωτός. You shall not make a schism, but you shall pacify them who contend by bringing them together. You shall confess your sins. You shall not betake yourself to prayer with an evil conscience. This is the way of light.

Chapter 20

Way of darkness

1  δὲ τοῦ μέλανος ὁδός ἐστιν σκολιὰ καὶ κατάρας μεστή. ὁδὸς γάρ ἐστιν[19] θανάτου αἰωνίου μετὰ τιμωρίας, ἐν ἐστιν τὰ ἀπολλύντα τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτῶν· εἰδωλολατρεία, θρασύτης, ὕψος δυνάμεως, ὑπόκρισις, διπλοκαρδία, μοιχεία, φόνος, ἁρπαγή, ὑπερηφανία, παράβασις, δόλος, κακία, αὐθάδεια, φαρμακεία, μαγεία, πλεονεξία, ἀφοβία θεοῦ· But the way of the Black One is crooked and full of a curse. For it is a way of eternal death with punishment wherein are the things that destroy men's souls–idolatry, boldness, exhalation of power, hypocrisy, doubleness of heart, adultery, murder, plundering, pride, transgression, treachery, malice, stubbornness, witchcraft, magic, covetousness, absence of the fear of God;
2 διῶκται τῶν ἀγαθῶν, μισοῦντες ἀλήθειαν, ἀγαπῶντες ψεῦδος, οὐ γινώσκοντες μισθὸν δικαιοσύνης, οὐ κολλώμενοι ἀγαθῷ, οὐ κρίσει δικαίᾳ, χήρᾳ καὶ ὀρφανῷ οὐ προσέχοντες, ἀγρυπνοῦντες οὐκ εἰς φόβον θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἐπὶ τὸ πονηρόν, ὧν μακρὰν καὶ πόρρω πραΰτης καὶ ὑπομονή, ἀγαπῶντες μάταια, διώκοντες ἀνταπόδομα, οὐκ ἐλεῶντες πτωχόν, οὐ πονοῦντες ἐπὶ καταπονουμένῳ, εὐχερεῖς ἐν καταλαλιᾷ, οὐ γινώσκοντες τὸν ποιήσαντα αὐτούς, φονεῖς τέκνων, φθορεῖς πλάσματος θεοῦ, ἀποστρεφόμενοι τὸν ἐνδεόμενον, καταπονοῦντες τὸν θλιβόμενον, πλουσίων παράκλητοι, πενήτων ἄνομοι κριταί, πανθαμάρτητοι.[20] persecutors of good men, hating the truth, loving lies, not perceiving the reward of righteousness, not cleaving to the good nor to the righteous judgment, paying no heed to the widow and the orphan, wakeful not for the fear of God but for that which is evil; men from whom gentleness and forbearance stand aloof and far off; loving vain things, pursuing a recompense, not pitying the poor man, not toiling for him that is oppressed with toil, ready to slander, not recognizing Him that made them murderers of children, corrupters of the creatures of God, turning away from him that is in want, oppressing him that is afflicted, advocates of the wealthy, unjust judges of the poor, sinful in all things.

Chapter 21

Concluding remarks

1 Καλὸν οὖν ἐστὶν, μαθόντα τὰ δικαιώματα τοῦ κυρίου ὅσα γέγραπται, ἐν τούτοις περιπατεῖν. γὰρ ταῦτα ποιῶν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ δοξασθήσεται· ἐκεῖνα ἐκλεγόμενος μετὰ τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῦ συναπολεῖται. διὰ τοῦτο ἀνάστασις, διὰ τοῦτο ἀνταπόδομα. It is good therefore to learn the ordinances of the Lord, as many as have been written above, and to walk in them. For he who does these things shall be glorified in the kingdom of God; whereas he who chooses their opposites shall perish together with his works. For this cause is the resurrection, for this the recompense.
2 Ἐρωτῶ τοὺς ὑπερέχοντας, εἴ τινά μου γνώμης ἀγαθῆς λαμβάνετε συμβουλίαν· ἔχετε μεθ᾿ ἑαυτῶν εἰς οὓς ἐργάσησθε τὸ καλόν· μὴ ἐλλείπητε. I entreat those of you who are in a higher station, if you will receive any counsel of good advice from me, keep among you those to whom you may do good. Fail not.
3 ἐγγὺς ἡμέρα ἐν συναπολεῖται πάντα τῷ πονηρῷ. ἐγγὺς κύριος καὶ μισθὸς αὐτοῦ. The day is at hand, in which everything shall be destroyed together with the Evil One. The Lord is at hand and his reward.
4 ἔτι καὶ ἔτι ἐρωτῶ ὑμᾶς· ἑαυτῶν γίνεσθε νομοθέται ἀγαθοί, ἑαυτῶν μένετε σύμβουλοι πιστοί, ἄρατε ἐξ ὑμῶν πᾶσαν ὑπόκρισιν. Again and again I entreat you; be good lawgivers one to another; continue faithful councilors to yourselves; take away from you all hypocrisy.
5  δὲ θεός, τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου κυριεύων, δώῃ ὑμῖν σοφίαν, σύνεσιν, ἐπιστήμην, γνῶσιν τῶν δικαιωμάτων αὐτοῦ, ὑπομονήν. And may God, who is Lord of the whole world, give you wisdom, judgment, learning, knowledge of His ordinances, patience.
6 γίνεσθε δὲ θεοδίδακτοι, ἐκζητοῦντες τί ζητεῖ κύριος ἀφ᾿ ὑμῶν, καὶ ποιεῖτε ἵνα εὑρεθῆτε[21] ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως. And be taught of God, seeking diligently what the Lord requires of you, and act that you may be found in the day of judgment.
7 εἰ δέ τίς ἐστιν ἀγαθοῦ μνεία, μνημονεύετέ μου μελετῶντες ταῦτα, ἵνα καὶ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ἀγρυπνία εἴς τι ἀγαθὸν χωρήσῃ. ἐρωτῶ ὑμᾶς, χάριν αἰτούμενος. But if you have any remembrance of good, call me to mind when you practice these things these things, that both my desire and my watchfulness may lead to some good result. I entreat you asking it as a favor.
8 ἕως ἔτι τὸ καλὸν σκεῦός ἐστιν μεθ᾿ ὑμῶν, μὴ ἐλλείπητε μηδενὶ ἑαυτῶν, ἀλλὰ συνεχῶς ἐκζητεῖτε ταῦτα καὶ ἀναπληροῦτε πᾶσαν ἐντολήν· ἔστιν γὰρ ἄξια. So long as the good vessel (of the body) is with you, be lacking in none of these things, but search them out constantly, and fulfill every commandment; for they deserve it.
9 διὸ μᾶλλον ἐσπούδασα γράψαι ἀφ᾿ ὧν ἠδυνήθην, εἰς τὸ εὐφρᾶναι ὑμᾶς. σῴζεσθε, ἀγάπης τέκνα καὶ εἰρήνης. κύριος τῆς δόξης καὶ πάσης χάριτος μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν. For this reason I was the more eager to write to you so far as I was able, that I might give you joy. Fare you well, children of love and peace. The Lord of glory and of every grace be with your spirit.

[1] Alt. text: σώθητε

[2] Alt. texts: ἱματία and ἱματα.

[3] Alt. text adds αὐτῶν

[4] ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό = at same place/time; in common, together.

[5] Some fragments add εἰς

[6] Alt. text: τὴν in place of Codex Sinaiticus: τὰ παιδία σποδὸν

[7] Alt. text: λέγει.

[8] The last 7 words εἶτα … δόξα are obscure and possibly corrupt.

[9] Some editions begin verse 4 with οὐκοῦν.

[10] Alt. text: διδαχῆς

[11] Alt. text: συνειδήσει.

[12] Alt. text: καταφάγῃ

[13] Alt. text: πολύποδα.

[14] Alt. text adds: κολλώμενος.

[15] Sinaiticus adds: δικαίως

[16] ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό = at same place/time; in common, together.

[17] ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό = at same place/time; in common, together.

[18] Alt. text reads: ὁ Χριστὸς.

[19] Alt. text: ὅλος instead of ὁδὸς γάρ ἐστιν.

[20] Alt. text: πανταμάρτητοι

[21] Alt. text: θεῷ.